The Pathophysiology of Acute Renal Failure Essay

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Explain the pathophysiology of acute renal failure. Include pre-renal, intrarenal and postrenal causes. Acute renal failure is a sudden decrease of kidney function often characterized by the loss of homeostatic equilibrium of the internal medium causing waste accumulation in the blood. Aside from accumulation of waste products like nitrogen and urea, it is also characterized by a sudden decrease of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) which disables the kidney from filtering waste products that is harmful to the body. Evidently, acute renal failure disables the kidney from maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance. As stated by kidneyatlas.org, causes for acute renal failure are classified into three: prerenal, intrarenal, and postrenal.…show more content…
Discuss, compare, and contrast the 3 stages. Diagnosing acute renal failure starts off by obtaining the patient's history, physical examination, and blood and urine studies. The information obtained will serve as a stepping stone for treating the different stages of acute renal failure. According to the American Academy of Family Physicians,"in pre-renal acute renal failure the parenchyma is undamaged, and the kidneys respond as if volume depletion has occurred". The exams for diagnosing the pre-renal acute renal failure mainly focuses on urine and blood studies because of diminish renal blood flow. While pre-renal focuses more on the urine and blood studies, the damage for intrarenal acute renal failure (ARF) is evident in the parenchyma. Diagnostic exam for intrarenal ARF and post-renal mostly focuses on biopsy to determine the exact cause of the disorder. However, the downside of using biopsy as a diagnosis mechanism is that bleeding can occur which adds to further complications. What are the subjective and objective signs and symptoms of acute renal failure. In this answer, discuss the following terms: asthenia, azotemia, uremia, oliguria, and anuria. Renal failure are categorized into three stages: acute renal failure, chronic renal failure, and end-stage renal failure. In acute renal failure, the signs and symptoms are categorized into subjective and objective. As described by the medical staff of Penn State Milton S. Hershey MedicalCenter (HMC), the
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