The Perception Of Self Efficacy, Perception, And Perception

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From early infancy, we look to others as a primary source of information about the world. This dependence is so powerful that we often re-evaluate our judgements of self-efficacy, perceptions, as well as comprehension judgements when they contradict others’ judgements, in fear of rejection. The knowledge, evaluation and control of one’s thought processes are often referred to as “metacognition”. Metacognition primarily pertains to the processes whereby one estimates and reflect upon one’s awareness and understanding regarding one’s own cognitive (rational) processes or anything related to them (i.e., how one perceive, remember, think and act) (Flavell, 1979). Of interest here is not how does the person execute these processes but what do…show more content…
Nelson and Narens (1990) conceptualized metacognition into a basic framework as operating at two interrelated levels summarized in Figure 1 below: the objective level (i.e., information about one’ own cognitive capabilities, as well as understanding how, when and why to use strategies and allocate cognitive resources) and the meta-level (i.e., the regulation aspect of learning).

Figure 1. Nelson and Narens’ (1990) construction of a metacognition panel illustrates theoretical mechanisms comprising of meta-level/object-level and two relations in terms of the direction of the flow of information between the two levels. Adapted from Nelson and Narens (1990) cited by Nelson (1992).

Although there are many diverse definitions regarding metacognition, the central questions pertaining to metacognition have been the accuracy of metacognitive judgements (i.e., the correspondence between subjective and objective indices of knowing and the factors that affect that correspondence) as well as the cognitive processes fundamental for the strength, control and accuracy of these judgements (Dunlosky & Metcalfe, 2009). In particular, recent psychological studies have assessed the role of metacognitive judgments in better understanding students’
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