The Permanent Arrival Of Europeans

1890 WordsMar 30, 20178 Pages
Prior to the permanent arrival of Europeans in the late 15th century, between seven and ten million Native Americans, or Indians, lived within the boundaries of modern-day United States and Canada. With nearly 400 different languages and more than 20 language families, North America was one of the most culturally diverse places in the world. Informal treaties between settlers and Indian tribes were common. Through the 18th century, there were countless skirmishes and battles between settlers and Indians. Despite the conflicts, Europeans attempted to include Indians when possible. In the early 17th century, English settlers in Virginia negotiated a treaty with the Chickabominies tribe that resulted in the tribe gaining status as…show more content…
In 1783, delegations from seven Indian tribes, some of which held long histories of inter-tribe conflict, met near Lake Erie to form an alliance against American expansion. Unfortunately, the pan-Indian alliance required material and organizational support from the British, who ceded Indian land to the United States at the 1783 Paris peace conference, which ended the Revolutionary War. With independence secured, Americans set their sights on western expansion. America’s plan to expand into the West proceeded with little regard to Indian sovereignty. Farmers and frontiersmen eager to find a new way of life fueled the American desire for Indian lands. Consequently, territorial conflict with Indians was rampant in the early years of the United States. Between 1790 and 1796, “nearly five-sixths of [the United States’] federal operating expenditures were devoted to fighting Indians.” Contrarily, British forts in Canada actively traded and negotiated with Indian tribes in the Ohio region. At the same time they were peacefully trading with the British, an Indian alliance repelled a large-scale American attack resulting in more than 600 Americans killed. In 1794, the Indian alliance was defeated at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. Within a year, Indians in Ohio signed over almost all of their lands to the United States. Not all encounters with Indians turned violent. In an effort to prevent American attacks against their villages, the
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