The Physiological Effects And Prognosis Of Primary Hyperparathyroidism

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The Physiological Effects and Prognosis of Primary Hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) in Pregnant Women According to Wenig (2008), primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is characterised by increased concentrations of parathyroid hormone (PHT), causing calcium levels in the blood to rapidly increase. Leppert and Howard (1997) state that PHPT rarely occurs in pregnant women, presenting 8 per 100,000 cases a year. Despite this, the condition can lead to severe pre-natal and post-natal complications (Leppert and Howard, 1997), such as: the development of hypoparathyroidism in the foetus, hypercalcaemia and the formation of kidney stones (Belfort, 2010). The aim of this report is to accurately examine these physiological effects and surgical treatments associated with primary hyperparathyroidism in pregnant women. In order to undertake this, carefully selected journal articles, specialist textbooks and academic literature will be employed and utilised. The Parathyroid Glands and Primary Hyperparathyroidism Located within the neck, the four parathyroid glands are positioned in the posterior side of the thyroid gland, superior to the trachea and inferior to the larynx (Hillson, 2002): as shown in Figure 1. These glands are composed of specialised thyroid epithelial tissue and cells, which are arranged in thyroid follicles, containing colloid: a “depot of thyroid hormone precursor” (Hillson, 2002, p.325). In addition to thyroid epithelial cells, parafollicular cells produce calcitonin

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