The Physiological Effects of Renovascular Hypertension (Renal Hypertension) on the Body

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Renovascular hypertension, also known as renal hypertension, is a condition in which chronically elevated high blood pressure is caused by a narrowing of the renal arteries. The renal arteries are the arteries that bring blood to the kidneys (9). This blood is processed by which the kidneys filter the blood, removing some substances and sometimes adding others. The kidneys also have several functions, which can be negatively affected by renovascular hypertension. One function is the regulation of water and ion balances within the body. In order to do so, the kidney is also responsible for the removal of waste products and foreign chemicals from the blood by excreting them in the form of urine. Another function of the kidneys is …show more content…
Concept 1: Renal Artery Stenosis as the Cause of Renovascular Hypertension

Renovascular hypertension is most commonly caused by prerenal factors, which are conditions that result in a decrease in blood flow to the kidney, which is also known as hypoperfusion. In many cases, the prerenal factor that causes renovascular hypertension is renal artery stenosis. Renal artery stenosis is defined as the narrowing of the renal artery that produces a decrease in blood flow into the kidneys (3). Renal artery stenosis is most often caused by atherosclerosis (1). Atherosclerosis occurs when there is a buildup of fatty substances within the walls of the arteries, which is what causes the narrowing. The fatty substances, like cholesterol and triglycerides, harden over time and become plaque, which increases the resistance of the arteries by decreasing the circumference, but also by making the arteries less elastic (5). When arteries are less elastic, they are unable to expand and recoil properly, which causes stiffening. Factors that can lead to atherosclerosis include a poor diet that is high in fat, physical inactivity, and cigarette smoking (1). When the narrowing of the renal artery occurs, there is a decrease in blood flow

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