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The Physiology, Metabolism, Biochemistry

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Toxoplasma gondii, Joan Ng Kiat Yee: BM304 revision guide 2015
The physiology, metabolism, biochemistry
Toxoplsama gondii is an intracellular apicomplexan parasite that forms cyst coccidian in warm-blooded animals, primarily in the Felida – domestic cats (Shannon et al., 2015). The organism also causes a wide range of diseases in different intermediate hosts, ranging from animals, such as mammals and birds to human (Astrid et al., 2000). In human, this parasite poses serious threat by causing a disease called Toxoplasmosis (Parasites, 2015).

The parasite exits through the faeces of cats. Within the cat’s intestinal epithelium, T. gondii parasite undergoes gametogenesis and mating. This leads to the generation of oocysts containing sporozoites that are the shed in the cat’s faeces, which could readily infect new host cells (Joanne et al., 2013).

The genome and diversity
DNA components DNA content
Nuclear Genome 87 Mb
Mitochondrial Genome 6 Kb
Episomal plastid-like Genome 35 Kb

Figure 1. Genetic information of Toxoplasma Gondii (James et al., 2001)

The T. gondii genome consists of three DNA components, located in the nucleus, mitochondrion and apicoplast. The nuclear genome is haploid for most of the parasite’s life is estimated to be 87Mb (James et al., 2001). Figure 1 illustrates the all DNA components and content of the organism.

Toxoplasma Gondii constitutes three major genotypes, Type I, II and III, which are universally dominant strains. The Type I strains
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