The Political Regime Of A Country

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There is a general consensus emerges that formal institution is the main variable in shaping the political regime of a country (Tsebelis, 1995; Helmke and Levitsky, 2004). However, there are several conditions should be examined in order to ensure the logical flow of the relationship. Institution is matter but it also depends on the other conditions (Przeworski, 2004). This paper review some articles in institutions, why there is a different opinion regarding the institutions and revisit Ramseyer and Rosenbluth’s book in order to gain more understanding about the political institution theory. Przeworski (2004) proposed two interpretations of new institutionalism theory: a) institutions as the independent variable, and b) institutions…show more content…
He proposes ten criteria to distinguish the majoritarian from the consensus in the two dimensions: “executives-parties dimension” and “ federal-unitary dimension”. Finally, Lijphart (2012) argues that consensus is “more democratic than majoritarian” in most aspects (p. 7), because consensus model is described by “negotiation democracy”. In his concluding remark, Przeworski (2004) argued that history shapes the institution to be better, so he believed that institutions depend on the conditions under which they established and sustain, his argument is supported by Thelen, who proposes the historical institutionalism analysis in examining the effect of institution to the outcome. According to Thelen (1999), institution can be both endogenous and exogenous variables and it depends on the literature that we applied to generate the hypothesis. Institution is independent variable when we apply the rational choice institutionalism. A group of researchers who work based on the rational choice institutionalism tend to find the generalization across time and countries, offer deductive method and focus on behavior of people (Thelen, 1999). On the other hand, researchers who work based on the historical institutionalism believe that the institution’s experience in solving the public’s problems is a key concept to understand the
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