Athletics play a huge role in education at both the high school and college level. However, there has emerged two popular theories; the academic and the developmental, about athletics/extracurricular activities that researchers hold. The academic perspective sees athletics/extracurricular activities as something to do for fun, to relax, but not important in the purpose of schools and can even be detrimental. The development perspective on the other hand views athletics/extracurricular activities as important as academics in the development of the individual (Holland & Andre, 1987). As a result of the academic and developmental theories, there has been and continues to be a large amount of research at both the college and high school level, demonstrating both positive and negative effects of athletics on academic achievement.
Intercollegiate Academic/Athletic Studies Alder and Alder (1985), Maloney and McCormick (1993) and Peltier, Laden and Matranga (1999) conducted studies where they found athletes to have a negative impact on student achievement. Time constraints were a key reason in both, Alder and Alder (1985) and Peltier, Laden and Matranga (1999) that lead to athletes negatively impacting academics. While McMillan highlighted how academics were overshadowed by athletics which gives way to Maloney and McCormick (1993) findings: that student-athletes have lower graduation rates than non-athletes. However, Rishe (2003) and Franklin (2006) countered these earlier