The Potential And Its Effects On Cancer Cells

1535 WordsDec 15, 20167 Pages
Limitless replicative potential is an acquired capability of many cancer cells, and it was listed as one of the original hallmarks of cancer [1]. It is mostly achieved by upregulation of telomerase, a reverse transcriptase DNA synthesis enzyme that maintains the telomeres length. Most tumor cells have a high level of telomerase activity but short telomeres due to prior divisions before achieving telomerase-activating malignancies [2]. In contrast, normal progenitor cells and stem cells have relatively long telomeres and lower mitotic/telomerase activity, and in normal differentiated somatic cells telomerase expression is repressed. Thus, telomerase inhibition provides an attractive therapeutic opportunity because of its universality, criticality and specificity for cancer cells [3]. Numerous strategies have been proposed for silencing this enzyme [reviewed in 2-3], but due to heterogeneity and complexity of cancers, as well as polymorphisms in human genomes, the search for effective and precise treatments for polymerase inhibition is still active. Nanotechnology is the latest evolving field, and its applications in cancer therapeutics have demonstrated great potential. Specifically, nanomedicine utilizes the advantages of nanodelivery systems [4]. The nanocarrier system is a new system for transporting biological molecules that has the advantages of being highly efficient, non-immunogenic, safe, inexpensive, biodegradable, and stable [4]. As a result, some previously
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