Hernan Cortes’ conquest of the Aztec Empire gave birth to three hundred years of Spanish rule in Mexico. Miguel Hidalgo, a Catholic priest, and leader of the independence movement united: indigenous peasants, poor creoles, nobility in Spanish America and the Catholic church within the colony to depose Spaniard royalist power which Cortes had given birth to (Mckay 684). This unlikely alliance stemmed from the widespread discontent of Spaniard viceroy assumption of control of the government of New Spain from its capital in Mexico City after Napoleon’s coup in 1808 (Mckay 684). The signing of Iturbide’s Plan of Iguala ended eleven years of struggle for independence, and the end of Spaniard control. This plan not only established Mexico as a constitutional monarchy but as well solidified the cultural transition from the polytheism of the Aztec Empire to the strong monotheism of the newly emerging Catholic Church. Because “the colonial system depended on the loyalty of the clergy: the priests controlled the people,” this allowed the Catholic Church’s influence to grow within the colony (Lynch 109). The separation of the Catholic Church from the Spanish crown played a vital role in the attainment of independence. Considering the separation of the Catholic Church from the Spanish crown and how the Plan de Iguala concluded the Mexican War of independence, I intend to explore: How the Catholic Church changed the Mexican War of Independence?
The role of the Roman Catholic Church in Spain’s conquest and colonization of continental America was a two-fold process whereby under the façade of conversion and control lay the primary goal of gaining wealth, enforcing laws and the inevitable extension of control while condoning the beginnings of European slavery in the Caribbean.[i]
The Underdogs by Mariano Azuela is arguably the most important novel of the Mexican Revolution because of how it profoundly captures the atmosphere and intricacies of the occasion. Although the immediate subject of the novel is Demetrio Macias - a peasant supporter of the Mexican Revolution -, one of its extensive themes is the ambivalence surrounding the revolution in reality as seen from a broader perspective. Although often poetically revered as a ‘beautiful’ revolution, scenes throughout the novel paint the lack of overall benevolence even among the protagonist revolutionaries during the tumultuous days of the revolution. This paper will analyze certain brash characteristics of the venerated revolution as represented by Azuela’s
Dr. Henderson’s purpose for writing A Glorious Defeat: Mexico and its War with the United States is to explain the causes of Mexico going to war with the United States in 1846, and the reasons Mexico suffered severely from it. Dr. Henderson’s focus throughout the book is not solely on the military tactics, but rather on the political and diplomatic maneuvering. This approach to the book is to provide to the reader the conflict’s real significance, as to the how and why the United States and Mexico went to war. This book does not point blame at either side, but tells the war from the Mexican point of view. Furthermore, Dr. Henderson explores Mexico’s weaknesses at the time and how those weaknesses led to the war with the United States.
Any student of history has come to recognize the fact that history is written by the victor and in lieu of this, research becomes essential to uncover where the truth lies. The True History of the Conquest of New Spain, so ironically named, is a personal account for historical events leading up to the conquest of New Spain, formerly known as the City of Mexico. The author, Bernal Diaz, was a soldier of the conquering army who composed the document well after the events took place sometime between 1552 and 1557. Though the document did provide insight in regards to the victor’s perspective, it also served as a tool to rewrite the account of the conquered people.
Velasco-Marquez, Jesus. "A Mexican Viewpoint on the War With the United States." The DBQ Project 41 (2006): n. pag. Print
The author of Mexican Lives, Judith Adler Hellman, grapples with the United States’ economic relationship with their neighbors to the south, Mexico. It also considers, through many interviews, the affairs of one nation. It is a work held to high esteem by many critics, who view this work as an essential part in truly understanding and capturing Mexico’s history. In Mexican Lives, Hellman presents us with a cast from all walks of life. This enables a reader to get more than one perspective, which tends to be bias. It also gives a more inclusive view of the nation of Mexico as a whole. Dealing with rebel activity, free trade, assassinations and their transition into the modern age, it justly
In Santa Biblia: The Bible Through Hispanic Eyes, Justo L. González invites the reader to read the Bible in fresh ways, and gain insight from the perspective of “those who claim their Hispanic identity as part of their hermeneutical baggage, and who also read the Scripture within the context of a commitment to the Latino struggle to become all that God wants us and all of the world to be—in other words, the struggle for salvation/liberation.” (González 1996, 28-29) Published hot on the heels of the quincentennial of Columbus’ voyage to the new world, and abreast of discussions taking place in the larger Hispanic community, González’s book is both timely and well researched.
One of the most important and controversial figures in Mexican history and literature is La Malinche. La Malinche, also known as Dona Marina, Malintzin Tenepal or Malinalli, played a significant role in the Spanish Conquest as translator and political mediator to Hernàn Cortèz. Although her importance in the conquest is undeniable, her depiction in literature and as a woman have been up for debate and the interpretations of her have influenced Mexican feminism. The two well-known interpretations of Malinche’s story are polarized interpretations of the historical figure and
In the second conflict, we see the Jesuits, a religious order recently created fight for the rights of the Guaraní in the film The Mission. The film shows it viewers how this religious order worked in the New World along with the Portuguese and the Spanish, both of whom had almost opposite agendas from the Jesuits. In Memory of Fire, readers see Galeano’s take on this major conflict with both sides being addressed. Ultimately the expulsion of the Jesuits ordered by King Charles III might show just how and why this era of Religious Conquest in the New World ended.
To what extent was Mexico’s independence from Spain a “full-scale assault on dependency”? This essay will investigate how the Mexican independence from Spain was only slightly a “full-scale assault on dependency”, due to several political and social conflicts. Firstly, Mexico remained a monarchy (but not under the control of Spain) after the insurgency. Secondly, there was still an official state religion in Mexico. Another reason is because social conflicts reduced the desire for independence .On the other hand, it assaulted dependency because there were some changes within the social hierarchy, and because Mexico was free from Spain.
Sweetness and Power is a historical study of sugar and its affect on society and economy since it was first discovered. Sugar has had a large impact on society and the economy that is not noticeable unless thoroughly studied. The following is an analysis of the work done by Sidney W. Mintz in his attempt to enlighten the "educated layperson".
In Juan Rulfo’s Pedro Páramo, various forms of oppressive behavior are manifested in the town of Comala – these range from the simple, readily apparent abuse of power to keep a population in line, as Pedro Páramo, having complete control over Comala, regularly does, to the very sinister use of religion as a means of reinforcing the patriarchal ideal held by contemporary Mexican society. In describing the oppression of society-at-large, Rulfo shows the sinister relationship that exists between power and the corruption of one’s moral standards through Pedro Páramo and Father Rentería.