I find the traditional birth practices peculiar and very unsafe. The conceiving of a child should be done in a sterile environment by professionals, so that the risks of negative effects like infections, wounds, etc. is minimized. Nevertheless I think the tradition, that the placenta is buried by the father, so that the soul can return to it’s first jacket, in order to continue it’s after death journey, is a wonderful way of believing what comes after death.
Many researches are educating pregnant women about the danger of cigarettes, alcohol and the potential negative effects of cigarettes, alcohol on fetus development. However, scarce research directly addresses specific effects of marijuana on pregnant women because women who use marijuana also tend to smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol and more likely to use other drugs such as cocaine and heroin. Thus, it is difficult to identify the precise effects of marijuana on pregnant women and on a fetus (Leemaqz, 2016.). Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United State (Murray & McKinney, 2014). According to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 40-60% of marijuana users continue to use during pregnancy. Studies have also shown that marijuana crosses the placenta negatively affecting brain development, and increasing the risk of pre-term birth. Proposition 64, the California Marijuana Legalization Initiative for adult use just passed after the election, California is added into the list of 26 states legalizing marijuana for medical or recreational purpose which could increase the number of women using marijuana during pregnancy. Due to above evidences, doctors warn pregnant women, women planning to pregnancy and breastfeeding women that they should discontinue their use of marijuana and should consider alternative therapy.
There are certain activities women at the end of the second trimester and beginning of third trimester can do in order to ensure healthy fetal development, which later contributes to healthy child development. The first suggested activity could be the intake of prenatal vitamins, especially folic acid, which is essential for proper growth and development in the fetal stage (American Pregnancy Association, 2012). This can be achieved through taking synthetic multivitamins specifically designed for pregnant women as well as ensuring a healthy diet full of colorful fruits and vegetables. Developmentally, folic acid intake during pregnancy is critical in order to prevent neural tube defects in the developing fetus, which would lead to physical and psychological issues in childhood (Heseker, 2011).
Substance abuse has been a worldwide problem at all levels of society since the beginning of time. Attention has been made toward the use of legal and illegal substance by pregnant women over the past several decades. Almost all drugs are known to cross the placenta and have some effect on the fetus. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics (2013) the first studies of the effect of substances consumed by a pregnant women to the developing fetus were identified in the 1960’s of prenatal tobacco use. These studies opened the door to further research and studies. The effects of Alcohol and opiate use have been studied since the 1970’s (Jones, Smith, 1973) and the effects of a variety of other drugs have been studied since 1979 and early 1980’s (Flinnegan, 1979).
Abortion is a decision every person should decide for themselves. The major arguments against abortion are how a fetus is a person; a fetus has rights; and it is morally impermissible to take a life. Many consider abortion to be equivalent to murder. However, a fetus is not a person. There are important traits one most hold to be a person, 1) self-awareness, one must be able to make decisions regarding themselves 2) being able to converse with others and hold a relationship 3) consciousness, one must be able to make rational decisions and have thought (Warren). On important aspect of being person is the ability to be aware of its surroundings and decision making. Being a pregnant is not a situation everyone gets to experience and the
Anything a mother consumes will affect her baby’s health, either positively or negatively. After the sperm enters into the egg, instantly, the baby begins to grow inside of the placenta, which is inside of the mothers’ uterus. “The placenta has been described as a pancake-shaped organ that attaches to the inside of the uterus and is connected to the fetus by the umbilical cord.” As the placenta produces the hormones for the baby, it also supplies the blood to the fetus from the mother. The most important element that allows the fetus to grow is the umbilical cord. The umbilical cord is composed of three blood vessels that attach to the placenta and the fetus. All of these components help the baby’s growth, but the amniotic sac, which is composed of amniotic fluid, helps protect the fetus. The amniotic fluid helps the baby maintain a regular body temperature that
Research on human fetal life involves numerous complex medical, moral, and legal aspects. It is not always easy, nor desirable, to seal off one aspect from another. Both sides of fetal tissue use will be equally focused on as a moral issue. The topic is a timely and important one because research on human fetal life is reportedly a growing industry and the subject of legal developments both in the United States and around the world.
Before reading this essay, I had the mindset that doing cocaine or smoking marijuana is the worst substance for a fetus. However, in reality, nicotine and caffeine are actually worse. This is a misconception amongst society as a whole. With that being said, society has created “common norms” that put restrictions on what women who are pregnant can do while carrying. I will admit that I myself have given women dirty looks if I see them drinking a glass of wine. In reality, doctors say refrain from binge or heavy drinking.
There is a unique connection between mothers and their children due to the crucial time of prenatal development. During this time, biological factors such as hormones pass through the placental barrier from the mother and into the fetus’ bloodstream. Additionally, the fetus senses the mother’s presence through sensory activity. For instance, a fetus often detects his or her mother’s heart rate and voice by the sounds produced. Due to the direct connections, mothers are strongly advised not to consume teratogens such as alcohol, drugs, or other substance that may be detrimental to a fetus during pregnancy. However, there are factors not quite tangible that mothers should be wary of during pregnancy such as stress. The stress hormone, cortisol,
As previously mentioned, environmental factors, such as exposure to taratogens, can affect the development of the unborn child. Broderick and Blewitt (2105) define a teratogen as “substances or agents that can cross the placental barrier and produce fetal deformities when taken or absorbed by the mother during pregnancy” (p.619). These substances include drugs, alcohol, cigarettes, pollution, stress hormones, poor nutrition, and diseases, such as AIDS. Consumption of drugs and/or alcohol can lead to low birth weight, as well as, physical, cognitive, and behavioral abnormalities. Furthermore, more recent studies are showing that exposure to pollutants can affect an individual’s development. For example, a study of the
environmental toxins and substances) during this period can cause major defects in the structure of developing organs (i.e. brain cellular structure, lungs, heart, kidney, and etc.), and other important structures (i.e. bones and muscles). This may result in the death of the fetus or cause severe physical malformations (i.e. congenital abnormalities) or mental impairments (i.e. disorders) (Office of Children’s Health Protection, 2003). As the stages of prenatal development progress, exposure to environmental toxins and substances can result in the fetus developing an array of defects and deficiencies that can continue after birth and up through adulthood (i.e. physical, mental, and behavioral) (Office of Children’s Health Protection, 2003). It is clear that expecting mothers need to be conscious of what they expose their fetuses to in utero so they develop properly. It is imperative that expecting mothers avoid the use of any alcohol or other drug substances during their pregnancy. Each period of development for a fetus is critical and exposure to alcohol and substances can significantly reduce their chance of being born and living a healthy life (Office of Children’s Health Protection, 2003).
Even unborn children take the chemical to the the placenta of her mother. Later the admission comes from the mother's milk. Doctors still agree: The use of the breast-feeding excels the dangers by far.
Najate Achamrah and Agnes Ditisheim believe that defective placenta releases many factors to the maternal circulation such as, pro-inflammatory cytokines, syncytiotrophoblast micro particles, angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors which is in turn cause endothelial cell dysfunction and increase vascular resistance that result in the maternal syndrome. (Najate Achamrah & Agnes Ditisheim, 2018).
Placental abruption is a serious and potentially life threatening condition for both the mother and fetus that requires urgent diagnosis and care from a multidisciplinary team. Although relatively rare, occurring in approximately 0.4 to 1% of all pregnancies, placental abruption accounts for between 10 and 20% of all perinatal mortality and approximately 10% of all preterm births (Tikkanen M 2011) and is the leading cause of vaginal bleeding after the first trimester (Oyelese Y & Ananth CV 2006). The cause of placental abruption is not well understood however it is thought to often be multifactorial and a woman’s known risk factors and co-morbidities may increase the risk status of this condition presenting although it is more often than
According to the findings by Mariotti (2012), the psychosocial and emotional components are an integral part of every woman’s pregnancy, and she can make decisions of whether to sustain life in her own uterus or end it (p. 269). At the same time, numerous studies have questioned the personhood of the fetus to provide well-evidenced approaches to evaluation of its social and legal status. Does a woman provide it with all necessary resources and substances like a donor? Does she have a right to extract it from her body in case she does not want to give it life, has some health care issues that put her and the baby at risk, or carries a fetus that was the result of a rape? All those questions are easier to ask than answer, but women should have the right to do with their body everything they want.