The Pressure and Release Model

604 WordsFeb 1, 20182 Pages
A disaster occurs when a significant number of people who are vulnerable experience a hazard and suffer severe damage and disruption to their livelihood. Without external aid they are unlikely to recover psychologically, physically or replace physical resources (Wisner et al. 2003). The Pressure and Release Model (PAR Model) is a model that helps understand risk in terms of vulnerability analysis in specific hazard situations. PAR is a tool that shows how disasters occur when natural hazards affect vulnerable people (Wisner et al. 2003). The vulnerability of people is rooted in social processes and underlying causes which may be isolated from the disaster. The foundation of the PAR model is that a disaster is the connecting factor between two opposing forces. The two opposing forces are what generate vulnerability and the natural hazard event. The release part of the model considers the reduction of the disaster. To relieve pressure, vulnerability has to be reduced (Wisner et al. 2013). The progression of vulnerability is as follows: Root Causes > Dynamic Pressures > Unsafe Conditions > Disaster < Hazard Vulnerability has three links that connect the disaster to process that are located separately from people impacted upon the disaster. Roots causes are the first link. Root causes are an interconnected set of widespread and general processes within a society and world economy. Root causes are spatially distant, temporally distant and bound up in cultural assumptions that
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