The Prevalence of Coronary Artery Disease in Saudi Arabia Essay

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Coronary artery disease is come to be the major reason for mortality in developing countries (Zahid, et al., 2013). Cardiovascular disorder provokes more disability and financial loss in industrialized countries than any other group of disorder (Sullivan, et al., 2001). A community-based national study, about adult Saudis ages range from of 30 and 70 years, revealed that the overall prevalence of coronary artery disease in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is 5.5% (Al-Nozha, et al., 2004). Nevertheless, the predicted rise in fatality as a consequence of coronary artery disease in the Middle East area in 2020 compared to 1990 was considered as the highest of all the areas of the world (146% increase in females and 174% increase in males)…show more content…
Atelectasis is more evident following cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) than after other forms of surgery (Duggan, et al., 2005). The percentage of atelectasis in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB is high, extending from 60% to 90% (Franco, et al., 2011). It contributes to the declination of pulmonary function and oxygenation also multiple factors, such as pain, postoperative diaphragmatic dysfunction, pleural opening, bed rest, immobilization, and, as well as to possible exist respiratory disease (Pasquina, et al., 2004). 2.2.1.2. Pneumonia Pneumonia is defined clinically as the presence of new or progressive lung infiltrate on a chest radiograph along with any of the following: temperature higher than 38°C or lower than 36°C, with white blood cell count higher than 12x103 cells/µl or lower than 3.5x103 cells/µl or 20% immature form, collection of purulent specimens, isolation and identification of a pathogenic microorganism from sputum, or blood on gram staining or culture (ATS, 2005) Pneumonia is usually addressed together with atelectasis because the natural surfactant which prevents bacterial growth decreases with atelectasis (Van Kaam, et al., 2004). 2.2.1.3. Pleural Effusion and Hemothorax Pleural effusion is defined as an abnormal amount of fluid in the pleural space. This is the space between the parietal and visceral layers of the

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