The Problem Of Indexicals Inside Putnam 's Twin Earth
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The Problem of indexicals inside Putnam’s twin earth Semantic externalism, the idea that the meaning of terms is defined by factors external to the speaker. So two speakers can have inside their brains an identical brain states at the point of making a statement as the extension is separate from the brain state. Putnam is trying to establish the view that
1. The meaning of a term is determined by the psychological state of the person using it
2. The extension of a term is determined by its meaning.
These two points together do not entail the following conclusion as either point one or two is false.
3. The extension of a term is determined by the psychological state of the person who uses it.
So Putnam created a thought experiment of two…show more content… Therefore, it’s not sufficient just to look brain states of an individual to determine the reference of the term they are using, the causal history of the object must also be taken into account. By causal history we have to look at the Causal Theory of Reference by Saul Kripke, a theory on how terms can acquire specific referents. The idea being that in order for a name to be able to refer to anything successfully you do not have to completely familiar with the thing, only that the causal chain when you use it. So for example with the naming on an individual, at the point of birth you would only need someone to point at the baby and state “I name you Jeff” and from this point all of Jeff’s family and friends refer to him as Jeff following this baptismal event. Not everyone who refers to Jeff was present at this event and when they refer to Jeff. For example one of Jeff’s family friends were not present when he’s given a name but they were told about Jeff by one of his parents, so through Jeff’s parent the family friend has a causal chain to Jeff for being given that name . By drawing on the ideas of a causal continuity for names the twin earth to show why names are independent from out brain states. The point of the liquids ‘XYZ’ and ‘water’ is that both liquids being referred to as water in both worlds, but both these liquids being referred to as water have a unnoticed indexical quality . Until technology is developed to identify the different