One of the major problems of our society nowadays is the rapid growth of drug addicts. This is because people misused and abused drugs, which can lead to addiction and dependent on drugs. In addition, the most abused drugs are psychotropic drugs such as cocaine and heroin, which can change the way people thinks, acts and feels. Today, there are many programs that are established to help drug users and prevent the spread of diseases. Needle exchange program (NEPs) is one of the programs, which has goal to reduce harm to drug users and innocent people. Moreover, implementing of needle exchange programs has become an argument because it cannot help drug users but instead it encourages them to use more drugs. In fact,
An increase in drug use, specifically opiates, has overwhelmed the United States. This behavior has led to a rise in the transmission of HIV/Hepatitis C which would be otherwise preventable. The needle exchange programs in Moorhead, Milwaukee, and Scott County are working to lower the transmission rate and increase participation in treatment programs.
Imagine that you are the pilot of a plane traveling to a new and exciting destination. Early in the journey the plane takes off and soars high into the sky where you feel like you are on top of the world, looking down from above at all of the beauty underneath you. On the way to your destination you are anxious and full of excitement in anticipation of the new journey that you are about to experience when all of the sudden your plane starts to shake and you find yourself losing control. At this point you have two options: You can try to change course to regain control and make it through the turbulence or you can continue with what you are doing and let the plane spiral to the ground in a firey crash. This scenario is similar to the life
Several studies have shown that injection drug users lower their risk of transmitting infectious diseases when there is a needle exchange program available. There has not been a valid study of whether or not the amounts of time needles are returned to the exchange programs are harmful to communities. The Journal of Public Health, conducted surveys, evidence from needle exchange sites, jails, and institutions that needle exchange programs are effective in reducing illnesses such as HIV and AIDS (Burt & Theide, 2016). Furthermore, Reepalu, Blome, Bjork, Widell, & Bjorkman (2012), researched the same individuals for 20 years, with no breaks. Their studies concluded that injection drug use, not only heightens the risk for HIV and AID’s, there is also an increase in Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C. However, there studies showed that there is not an increase rate of cancer diagnoses due to injection drug use. In a study conducted by Bonar and Rosenberg (2014), they wanted to see if self-initiated harm strategies, such as: proper needle sterilization techniques, proper disposal of needles, and cleaning of the pre injected skin, could help improve the health of those that use drugs intravenously. Their study was conducted over an eight-month period, results showed that their
Although these clients will still be abusing illegal substances, Sheon (2004) indicated that any reduction of harm is a step in the right direction, and the amount of success is measured by the client’s quality of life and well-being (as cited in Brown et al., 2005). “Harm reduction is about being respectful in somebody else’s world” (Georgina Perry, Service manager and co-author, England as cited in Cusick et al., 2010). By not respecting somebody else’s choices, the clients feel they must lie about their unhealthy lifestyles, which prevents the clients from getting assistance because they were trying to protect themselves from the real situation (Georgina Perry, Service manager and co-author, England as cited in Cusick et al., 2010). A way to reduce the harm from illegal substance abuse is clean needle exchange, and teaching clients how to properly inject themselves (Brown et al., 2005). The needle exchange is a program where clients exchange their used needles for clean ones, which helps reduce the spread of diseases such as HIV/AIDS (Brown et al., 2005). With continuation of these programs the harm from abusing illegal substances is reduced and the spread of life threatening diseases, such as HIV,
A safe injection site (SIS) has been placed in Vancouver’s Downtown Eastside where drug use is a challenging problem. The program is a vital piece of the cities known harm reduction approach to its serious problems with homelessness, drugs, crime and AIDS. Canada has drastically shifted its method. Going from punishing drug users to establishing the plan of harm reduction. Since 2003 when the supervised SIS opened, it has presented a safe health-focused center where drug users have access to inject illegal drugs using sterile equipment in a clean environment under the supervision of medically trained professionals. Although there are some serious concerns about the
There are many ways in which people who are addicted to intravenous drugs are perceived by our society. People sometimes believe the addicted person is to blame for their circumstance and substance dependence and some feel serious drug addicts are a “lost cause” due to a lack of values or flawed character. “Persons who struggle with addictions often are depicted as criminals or prostitutes, weak, lazy and morally corrupt” (Bartlett, R., Brown, L., Shattell, M., Wright, T., Lewallen, L. (2013). These stereotypes paint people with addiction negatively; a percentage of people who live with serious addiction are capable of recovery with the right attitude, support and healthcare. Street level healthcare services such as; safe injection sites, provide accessable resources at street level for people to make the choice to live healthier lifestyles. Govement funding and support is needed to make these projects possible to improve the health of Canadians. Safe injection sites are proven to be positive contributions to communities, save lives, reduce harm and open doors towards recovery for people from the grip of addiction.
The professors said “that addicts should not be the focus of HIV prevention efforts because they would not change their behavior.” Parker was outraged and organized meetings with IDUs to warn them of HIV transference. In one of his meetings two addicts came in with clean syringes, their actions motivated him. In 1986, Parker began distributing and exchanging needles and syringes on the streets of New Haven and Boston, Massachusetts. He has been arrested several times in eight states where it is still illegal to purchase syringes without a prescription. Because of foundational work by Jon Parker and the work in Amsterdam, in two year later the first SEP operated with a bit of community consent opened in Tacoma. In the same year, two more exchange programs surfaced, one in New York and another in San Francisco. Today, there are currently 203 exchange programs operating. Despite the “on and off” support from private state and local funding and help from activist and advocates keep the programs afloat.
Sharing of needles used by injection drug users contributes heavily to the spread of blood-borne diseases, accounting for almost one third of new HIV infections outside sub-Saharan Africa (Ball, 2007). Various studies support that blood-borne disease transmission and contraction are strongly linked to injection drug use. A study conducted by Semaan et al. that analyzed data of 10,301 persons who inject drugs in revealed that 32% had shared syringes during the 12 months prior (Semaan et al., 2011). A second study involving 309 injection drug users found HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C prevalence of 42.4%, 80.9%, and 74.1%, respectively. The study also revealed that 63.8% of the participants engaged in indirect sharing practices within six months prior.
If needle exchange programs will be banned in United States than it will cause even greater stigma towards needle sharing practices. Even today, in the 21st century due restriction policies and laws against publically available injecting equipment, most people developed a negative attitude towards a needle exchange programs. As was mentioned by Dr. Epidemiol, most of the time individuals that engage in needle sharing practices would not report the fact of needle sharing , even if it indeed occurred. Less drug users would report it because most people feel stigmatized if they tell in public about the act of needle sharing.
America has been fighting a long war with drugs and the many diseases that are spread due to drug habits and dirty needles. Many people believe that the cure to solving this widespread epidemic is The Clean Needle Exchange program; this is a program that offers clean needles to drug abusers and also counseling to reduce the need for drugs. Though there are definitely benefits to the program it does not come without pitfalls, the programs have received a great deal of controversy because some people view it as drug promoting and supporting. The program is also funded by taxpayers which has sparked a lot of criticism and created the ban on needle exchange
When the government adopts needle exchange programs, People including drug users and non-drug users would have to start paying taxes for this program, this will then cause the price of needles to increase which would then cause heroin itself to increase. Many people might believe that adopting needle exchange programs would lead to a larger population of heroin users which is in fact false. In San Francisco a needle exchange program was adopted in December 1986 through June 1992 the injection frequency among injecting drug users (IDUs) decreased from 1.9 injections per day to .7 and the “percent of new initiates into injection drug use decreased from 3% to 1%” (National Research Council. Paragraph 14). “In the United States, an estimated 929,646 people are living with HIV/AIDS” and 11% of those cases are caused by injecting drug
Since the early 1960’s there have been an alarming increase in drug use in the United States in 1962, four million Americans had tried an illegal drug. By 1999, that number had risen to a staggering 88.7 million, according to the 1999 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse.
Traditional injection uses a syringe to insert liquid into body. The purpose of medical injection is to pierce the material into the suﬃcient depth of skin. This kind of injection needs to use large number of syringe needles, and according to ,clients reported that an average of 8.7% of injections employed shared syringe needles. Data from the Coalition for safe Community Needle Disposal showed that in the year of 2011, 13.5 million people in the United States produced 7.8 billion used sharps(needles, syringes, etc.) outside the traditional healthcare, and 1 million to 1.5 million of needles were used for illegal drug injections. Since blood borne infections, like HIV, HBV, and HCV, can be commonly spread by sharing intravenous syringes, huge number of substandard and illegal use of needles compares to share rate of 8.7%, the potential spread of these infections cannot be ignored. Meanwhile, on the other side, the application of micro needle can to large extent avoid this from its source.
Needles, that word reminds everyone about injection such as the flu or in some cases drugs. In the author Tina Rosenberg article “Injecting Drugs, Under a Watchful Eye” published in January 18, 2017, by The New York Times. Tina explains how the use of sharing needles have cause increase in HIV and hepatitis. The author main argument in her article is the positive outcome an “supervised injection facility” can have on reducing disease. While countering the critics who believe this idea will actually increase and encourage the use of drugs. Although Tina’s article has variety of sources to back up her claim, which gives her slight edge over her readers. Her lack of authority and credibility can easily destroy all her sources.