The Process Of Seed Germination Is Dependent On Environmental And Internal, Hormonal Factors

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The process of seed germination is dependent on both environmental and internal, hormonal factors. Controlled by a number of mechanisms necessary for growth and development, seed germination rely on interactions between plant hormones, genes, and the environment it is surrounded by (Miransari and Smith, 2013). Just as germination is a complex, developmental phase, so is senescence. Involving both degenerative and nutrient recycling processes, senescence is the final stage of growth and development (Zhang and Zhou, 2012). A kind of programmed cell death, senescence can be induced by both environmental and internal factors (Zhang and Zhou, 2012).
Environmental factors, specifically light, are critical regulators of germination with phytochrome, a category of photoreceptors, playing a major role in the perception of light used to induce germination (Seo et al, 2008). Phytochromes receive light signals in two states, one state maximizing its absorption at 665 nm, in the red region of the light spectrum, and the other with an absorption maximum at 730 nm, in the far-red region (Hopkins and Hüner, 2008). These two receptive forms can leave the tissue active or inactive. Initially in its Pr state, considered inactive, it needs to absorb red light in order to be converted into its active state, Pfr. In this state, these absorbed light signals are then converted into internal cues, regulating the physiological processes in seeds (Hopkins and Hüner, 2008). According to recent

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