The Production and Consumption of Ethanol as Fuel

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The production and consumption of ethanol as fuel is presented by several interesting facts. The ability to compete with non-renewable fossil fuels, concern about the environment and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and have a source of fuel coming from agriculture as a alternative outlet for agricultural producers, ethanol production became an important and endorsed industrial process (Mussatto et al., 2010).
Historically, Brazil was a example of country that started with a government program called Pro-álcool in 1975 to increase the production of ethanol, aimed to replacing the use of gasoline, reducing oil imports at a moment that the crise of oil increased the price this combustible (Martines-Filho et al., 2006).
Sugarcane is an important tropical plant that is produced in Brazil. This forage is included in the family of Poaceae, the same family of corn, wheat, rice and sorghum. Sugarcane is originally from Southeast Asia and was introduced to Brazil in the 16th century, when Brazil was a Portuguese colony. Using this raw material Brazil is the large producer of sugar and the second large producer of ethanol.
Brazil has the largest market of biofuel using sugarcane as raw material, making this biofuel a import renewable fuel with cost-competitive to replace the petroleum fuel for transport. Producing almost the same amount in 2005, Brazil use less than half of the area to cultivate the crop to produce ethanol than United States, wich use mainly corn as raw
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