The Proposed Approach . The Objective Of The Proposed Approach

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The Proposed approach
The objective of the proposed approach is to integrate different project management methodologies based on alignment of their ontological models. The results of this alignment will provide a formal description including mapping of elements belonging to both methodologies. This approach also helps introduce new tools for supporting this integration. As shown in Fig. 2, the proposed approach consists of three steps which are discussed briefly in the following subsections: Developing the domain ontologies of the selected methodologies. Performing ontology alignment (Matching). Creating a conceptual model that helps generate new tools.

Figure 2. The Proposed Approach Developing the Domain Ontologies of Selected
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Identify the sources used to acquire the domain knowledge (ex., experts, documents, existing ontologies, etc.). Develop the glossary that contains the key concepts in the domain. Classify the concepts in a hierarchy (taxonomy) and their relations. Formalize the ontology by an ontology language (ex., RDF, OWL, etc.). Evaluate the ontology completeness and consistency.

Figure 3. Methodology of Creating Ontology The Ontlogy Alignment (Matching) Process
Ontology alignment (matching) is the process of determining relationships or correspondences between entities of a pair of ontologies. Fig. 4 shows the general matching process [29] which can be seen as a function which receives as input two ontologies O1 and O2 and outputs an alignment A between these ontologies. An alignment contains a set of mapping elements (correspondences) between entities belonging to the matched ontologies. A correspondence can be expressed by several cardinalities: 1:1 (one-to-one), 1:m (one-to-many), n:1 (many-to-one) or n:m (many-to-many). Given two ontologies, a mapping element is defined as a 5-tuple: A=(id,e_1,e_2,r,n) (2)
id is an identifier for each mapping element. e1 is the entity of the first ontology. e2 is the entity of the second ontology. r is the relationship existing between e1and e2. n is the confidence level, typically in rang [0,1]. Figure 4. The
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