The Pros And Cons Of Human-Wildlife Conflict

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General introduction
According to the IUCN World Park Congress (2003), Human-Wildlife Conflict (HWC) occurs when wildlife resource requirements overlap with those of human populations, creating costs both to communities adjacent to protected areas and the wildlife within them. At present the phenomenon poses a serious challenge to both the human livelihoods and the flora and fauna globally (Berger & McGraw 2007).
HWC take place in diverse environments and different animal assemblages and countries and this is increasingly acquiring the attention of ecologist, wildlife biologists, wildlife researchers and wildlife managers across the globe (Muriuki et al.2017). Even though HWC has an ancient historical background, its rising harshness and multi-faced nature has made it a great global concern to wildlife management, this is due to number of factors such as, habitat fragmentation, land use changes, human and wildlife population expansion, competition for resources
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2016) and as results retaliatory killings of wildlife species intensify( Broekhuis et al. 2017,Mateo-Tomas et al. 2012), the long term survival of species is at risk. Wildlife population decreases in areas where there are high human-wildlife interactions, in places such as forests, river bank and grazing areas adjacent to protected areas (Michalski et al 2006; Sladge et al. 2017). On the other hand this conflict poses a huge challenge in the sustainability of human livelihoods (Gillingham &Lee 2003; Rao et al 2002; Sahoo and Mohnot 2004), along with resultant economic loss from crop and livestock damages ( Mackenzie and Ahabyona 2012; Schön 2013). The management of HWC drains the affected countries financially (Lamarque et al. 2009), this calls for better strategic management plans which are publicly acceptable and will not jeopardize wildlife conservation
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