The Protein Status Of Children With Protein Energy Malnutrition

1479 WordsJul 30, 20166 Pages
1- How would you evaluate the protein status of children with PEM? Which markers would you use and what are the expected results? The protein status of children with protein energy malnutrition (PEM) can be assessed by complete patient history and physical examination in which the skin would appear thinner and dull/discolored, hair growth is restarted and hair may fall and there would be loss of lean body mass over long period of time (Stipanuk and Caudill). The WHO recommends laboratory tests of blood glucose, microscopic blood smears, hemoglobin, urine and stool examination& culture for ova and parasites, serum albumin, and measurement of electrolytes (Lin et al.). The most commonly used method to assess PEM is measurement of plasma…show more content…
The measurement of antioxidant status can also evaluate the PEM. Khare et al. concluded that stress is present in PEM as a result of free reactive oxygen radicles and these cause membrane lipid peroxidation and thus change in oxidant and antioxidant levels in the body may predict the disease grading in PEM (Khare et al.) 2- Why nitrogen balance studies are considered to be better than the factorial method to estimate protein requirements? Although both methods have some limitations but the nitrogen balance studies are considered to be better than the factorial method to estimate protein requirements because the factorial approach has some uncertainties and assumptions involved during measurement of protein requirement (Allowances). In many long term studies the nitrogen balance method is considered as most reliable and better evidence to determine the protein requirement (Rand, Pellett and Young). The nitrogen balance studies have linear relationship between the nitrogen balance and nitrogen intake and this in not linear in factorial method (Morales, Craig and MacLean). In nitrogen method the direct measurements of nitrogen balance have been implicated to measure the protein requirement during disease and heathy conditions (Pencharz). This is not feasible by the factorial method to directly
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