The Provider And Patient Attributes

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Provider and Patient Attributes
We collected a set of attributes for providers and patients from the EDW. For providers, we extracted employee ID, employee role, and a physician index (a Boolean value; 1 if provider is a type of physician, 0 if not). For patients, we extracted age, encounter type (all inpatient in this data set), admission and discharge times, primary diagnosis, discharge location, length of stay, med service (department to which the patient was admitted), discharge disposition (where the patient was discharged to), and an index noting whether or not the patient had expired.

Network Visualization
We created two types of networks in this study. The first is a directed bipartite network and represents interactions between providers and patient records (Figure 2). The second network is undirected and depicts shared patient record access between providers (Figure 3). Visualization for both networks was performed using Gephi. [59] Further description of these networks follows.

Provider-patient Network
EDW data indicating provider access to a patients EHR was depicted as a directed bipartite graph (see Figure 2 for a one-patient example). The source node designates a provider of type physician, nurse, pharmacist, etc. The target node designates a patient with a diagnosis of heart failure who was admitted to NMH in 2012. An edge between them is an indication that the provider has accessed the patient record. The complete bipartite graph included all providers as
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