During this laboratory three submaximal test were done. YMCA Submaximal Bike Test, Astrand Submaximal Bike Test, and The RockPort 1-Mile Walk Test. Each of these test required taking Blood Pressure,Heart Rate, and times, either at rest or while exercising. Everyone is a different when it comes to Blood Pressure and Heart Rate. They both depend on how conditioned the person is. The hypothesis is determining which test produced the highest Heart Rate and at what times. Since resistance makes a person work harder, we assume that test will be the YMCA Submaximal Bike Test.
At the end of the testing all participants had improved aerobic capacity and gained more lean muscle but the muscles in the HIIT group experienced a higher ability to take in oxygen and produce energy. The muscles of the younger group improved by 49% and the older participants by 69%.
Physiological responses to aerobic training include lower resting heart rate which means increased efficiency of the cardiovascular system & faster recovery; increased heart stroke volume per beat, by way of more full left ventricle during diastole; increased
The effects of exercise on blood pressure, heart rate, respiration rate and electrical activity of the heart were assessed. The measurements of respiration rate, pulse rate and blood pressures were noted as described in Harris-Haller (2016). Data was first taken from subjects in a relaxed position and then followed by sets of reading after exercising based on one minute intervals. The data also noted sitting ECG traces from Harris-Haller (2016). The respiratory rate, pulse, blood pressure, P wave, QRS complex and T wave were defined for each subject. The class average was calculated for males and females and graphed to illustrate the results by gender for each cardiopulmonary factor.
For persons 1-3, as predicted, the heartrate and breathing rate were relatively low with Person 1, respectively, being 74 & 20, Person 2 being 86 & 16 and Person 3 being 73 and 19. The 50m Sprint resulted in having the highest heartrate for persons 1 and 2, 152 and 171 respectively, and the Stairs resulted in being the highest for Person 2 at 130. Strangely, the breaths per minute for persons 1 and 2 were highest, at 40 and 39 respectively, whereas Person 3 experienced their highest breaths at 43 for the 50m Sprint, which coincides with their highest heart rate. These trends show that the hypothesis is correct in the sense that the heart and breathing rate did increase with physical exercise, however, the hypothesised theory that the Sprint
Oxygen uptake () describes the rate at which oxygen is utilized by tissues (Burton et al, 2004). is determined by heart rate (heart beats each minute), stroke volume (the volume of blood pumped from one ventricle each beat) and arteriovenous oxygen difference (difference in blood-oxygen content between arterial and venous blood). Oxygen is needed for respiration, the chemical process that produces energy in the form of ATP. Several sources agree that oxygen uptake increases linearly with exercise, this is due to the skeletal muscles requirement for more oxygen for the production of more ATP. Hanson et al (1998) measured
This document is about how exercise affects the heart rate; the hypothesis of this practical was the more a person does exercise the more the heart rate will increase. To proof this hypothesis, heart rate of a person at a resting point was measured and then the person was asked to conduct exercise for some minutes and the heart rate was measured. Two different exercises were performed to get the best results.
When the anaerobic threshold is hit earlier, it is most likely because the subject is aerobically trained, where if it is hit later, the athlete is most likely anaerobically trained (Nishimura et al, 2014). When subjects performed a graded, cycle ergometer exercise test in the morning (9:00-10:00) and in the afternoon (16:00-18:00), the majority of the results saw ventilatory threshold (VT) reached at a much lower exercise intensity in the morning condition than in the afternoon (Nishimura et al, 2014). Ventilatory volume and heart rate at VT were also significantly lower during the morning exercise test than the afternoon. These results show that anaerobic threshold may be reached at a lower intensity in the morning than in the afternoon and that the relative exertion is greater in the morning than in the afternoon, shown by heart rate increases (Nishimura et al, 2014). Similarly, Hill et al. (1992) researched the specific effect of time of day on aerobic and anaerobic responses to high-intensity exercise. Fourteen recreationally active college students participated in two testing sessions that included cycling at a fixed wattage until the pedal cadence could not be maintained above 50 rpm. During the tests, expired gases were analyzed and used for the
The magnitude of an individual’s peak power, relative power and fatigue index can be directly related to an individuals training status. This can be determined by performing a short duration supramaximal anaerobic test. Peak power output heavily relies on the anaerobic metabolism within the body. Comprising of the adenosine triphosphate - phosphocreatine (ATP-PC) system and glycolytic anaerobic metabolic pathways. When physiological stress is placed on the metabolic, cardiovascular and musculoskeletal system during physical training our body is forced to adapt to cope with it more efficiently. Thus creating the differences in power and fatigue index within trained and untrained individuals.
The energy to perform exercise for periods of more than 10 minutes comes mainly from aerobic metabolism (1). VO2max is a reproducible measure of an individual’s cardiovascular system’s ability to deliver the required oxygenated blood to a large muscle mass involved in exercise (1). The determination of an individual’s VO2max is commonly used to assess levels of physical fitness, as well as develop and monitor training programs for athletes. The submaximal tests have an error of plus or minus 10% which makes them invalid for the purpose of long term training studies. For clinical screening purposes the use of submaximal prediction tests is a viable option. There are three main advantages to using submaximal testing. Submaximal testing does not take and individual to his or her maximal limits, which greatly reduces the chance of a cardiovascular accident, especially in older subjects. In addition expensive laboratory equipment is not needed, and more subjects can be screened in a given period of time.
The analysis of the results of the current study demonstrated a significant difference between mean change in pulse rate of subjects able to complete less than and greater than than 25 push ups (p < 0.05). The null hypothesis (H0) is rejected and the alternate hypothesis (Ha) retained. This suggests a correlation between aerobic and anaerobic fitness levels in completing high intensity exercise
Maximal oxygen consumption or VO2 max refers to the single maximum oxygen consumption that an individual can utilize during graded-intensity exercise. VO2 max can be assessed through properly administered submaximal oxygen consumption test which can include exercise test modes of treadmill, cycle ergometer or step test. In an individual, VO2 max can be determined by the cardiovascular system 's ability to deliver oxygenated blood to working muscles and then the muscle 's ability to extract that oxygen from the blood and generate energy for work. Influencing factors can include genetics, decline of VO2 max with aging, and finally aerobic training can positively influence an individual 's VO2 max and overall aerobic fitness. Individuals with high VO2 maxes often have greater overall aerobic fitness, which includes high efficiency, or running economy, better glycogen storage and is often an indicator of success when completing aerobic tasks of over 20 minutes. On the contrary, a low VO2 max can predict poor overall aerobic fitness which can include cardiovascular disease and problems with transporting oxygen to working muscles. (3) In these laboratory exercise test, submaximal intensity exercises were used to determine an individual 's predicted VO2 max which allowed the assessment of their overall aerobic fitness and the ability to compare the correlations between tests.
The procedures for this lab are outlined below to allow replication of the experiment performed. For collection of data, 2 experimenters were needed; one timed the experiment with a stopwatch and the other monitored the heart rate. Both experimenters relayed data back and forth. Before commencing the test, participants were instructed to warm up at 1/4 to 1/3 of their calculated workload at a moderate pace. After performing either one of the efforts, the participants were given a 20-minute rest period to allow adequate recovery for the next bout. During exercise testing, heart rate was recorded on a
The second muscle strength and endurance test is the push up test. I was able to complete 18 push-ups. The average for males over 17 is greater than or equal to 18. I just made the minimum number of push-ups to be considered a health fitness zone. I barely made it but I made it which was an accomplishment compared to the pacer test. I felt like if I was about 30 lbs. lighter, I could have done a lot more. The average number of push-ups according to Livestrong for someone my age (41 years old) is 27. I still have always to go but felt a since of
Exercise is termed as an activity requiring physical effort to improve health and fitness. Scientists can use fitness as a measure to compare one person to another (Haskel). Fitness tests can be conducted in a field or lab based setting (Point-of-care athlete testing, a new approach of sport performance evaluation Ioan Stoian National Institute of Sports Medicine, Bucharest, Romania). Fitness as a standard must be quantified to be able to compare individuals (Safrit). Predicting VO2Max can be done through both submaximal and maximal tests such as walking (KLINE), cycling (Astrand) and the 20 metre shuttle test (LIU). The VO2max can be assessed by means of an incremental test, otherwise known as a graded exercise test (GXT) The GXT can be administered differently, however it similarly requires exercise participation in an incremental fashion till volitional exhaustion(RYAN P. ALEXANDER† and CONSTANCE M. MIER‡). GXT is recognized as the “gold standard” in measurement of cardiorespiratory endurance (STEVEN E). VO2max measurement values are used as a measure in overall fitness and the efficiency of training on athlete performance. Specifically in previous research, LUCIA analysed the heart rate and performance of 13 road cyclists throughout the duration of a complete riding season. Each subject performed a progressive exercise test 3 times throughout the season. He found an overall improvement in performance (VO2max), though heart rate remained stable during remained stable at