The Relationship Between Phonology And Morphology

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3. The relationship between Phonology and Morphology.
The relation between the distribution of phonemes and grammatical units such as morphemes and words is therefore an aspect of the interface between Phonology and morphology. Both Phonology and Morphology study various patterns in languages all over the world. Considering the similarities of these fields, both are engaged in the scientific analysis of languages. Both are sub branches of Linguistics and without studying Phonology, one cannot move on to Morphology. There is an inter-relationship between these subjects. For differences, we can identify that Phonology mainly concentrates on sound systems of a language while Morphology pays attention to the word and the morphemes of a language. (Booij, 2007)
Then, in general, the interaction between phonology and morphology can be illustrated into at least four points:
1- Phonological rules may precede the morphological rules. Therefore, phonemes are considered to be the basic units of speech sound by which morphemes are represented. According to Kiparsky (1985), there are two common word-internal phonological domains, level 1 or the stem level,
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Its pronunciation varies between [s], [z], and [ɪz], as in maps, games, and glasses respectively. A purely phonological realization would most likely assign to these three ending phonemic representations /s/, /z/ or /ɪz/. On a morphophonological level, however, they may all be considered forms of the underlying object //z//, which is a morphophoneme. The different forms it takes depend on the segment at the end of the morpheme to which it attaches: the dependencies are described by morphophonological rules. The behaviour of the English past tense ending "-ed" is similar, it can be pronounced /t/, /d/ or /ɪd/, as in worked, bobbed and loaded respectively. (Hargus, & Kaisse‏, 1993) and (Hayes,
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