The Relationship Between Socio-Economic Status and Academic Achievement

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The Relationship Between Socio-Economic Status and Academic Achievement : A Review of Existing Literature
The purpose of this literature review is to examine the relation between students’ socioeconomic status and their academic achievement. To be more specific, the goals are to determine (a) what defines low income; (b) review identified student characteristics (e.g. parental involvement, ethnicity, and school location) that have an effect on student achievement; and (c) what current research is saying about the best practices are for addressing the needs of low income students within the school setting. This literature review is not intended to provide a comprehensive review of the available literature, but to serve as a
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Brooks-Dunn and Duncan also found that family income seems to be more strongly related to children's ability and achievement-related outcomes than to emotional outcomes. The effects are particularly pronounced for children who live below the poverty line for multiple years and for children who live in extreme poverty (that is, 50% or less of the poverty thresh-old). These income effects are probably not due to some unmeasured characteristics of low-income families: family income, in and of itself, does appear to matter. The timing of poverty is also important, as low income during the preschool and early school years exhibits the strongest correlation with low rates of high school completion, as compared with low income during the childhood and adolescent years. Poor-quality schooling, which is correlated with high neighborhood poverty, may exacerbate this effect. These findings suggest that early childhood interventions may be critical in reducing the impact of low income on children's lives (Brooks-Dunn and Duncan, 1997, p. 68).

The relationship between low income status and student achievement There has been much research accomplished about the academic achievement of students from low income families. Because of the multiple factors that impact the lives of students from poor backgrounds there is not one universal answer as to how poverty affects
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