The Republic, Socrates And Glaucon

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Yezhen Li Professor David Goldman Philosophy 1300 11 September 2014 First Paper In sections 433-445 of The Republic , Socrates and Glaucon discuss about definitions and properties of both justice and injustice, with reference to the structure and condition of an ideal city with absolute justice. Considering the properties of justice and injustice, they conclude that just lives, even without anything desirable, are better than any other unjust lives. To start off, Socrates discusses about a just city where three kinds of people (rulers, defenders and basic constructors) are well functioning and limiting themselves to do only their own work. With the just city as an analogy, Socrates proves that every individual’s soul consists of three parts- the rational part ruling the soul, the spirited part following the rational one and defending the body, and the appetitive part providing various basic desires. Hence, Socrates defines justice as an individual’s inside harmony where three parts of the soul are only engaged in their own work and cooperate well with one another, whereas defining injustice as the opposite. Based on the definitions of both justice and injustice, Socrates and Glaucon draw the conclusion that just lives are better than any other unjust lives. According to Glaucon, an individual’s life is “thought to be not worth living when the body’s nature is ruined” (Glaucon 121). The nature of the body is the situation where both body and soul are “in a natural relation

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