The Research Of Wings Wing Motion

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1.1 The Research of Flapping Wing Motion Flapping wing motion is observed from biological flying animals. Most scientist, biologists and naturalists are attracted by this motion and have found over a million different species of insects and 10,000 types of birds and bats fly with flapping wings [1]. In 1490, Leonardo da Vinci made a flapping wings vehicle, also called ornithopter as shown in Figure 1.1, to explain and demonstrate the theory of thrust generated from flapping wings. A huge amount of attempts to develop flying vehicles were made at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th (Lilienthal, 1889; Lippisch, 1960) [2, 3], but most of them failed due to insufficient academic knowledge. The result of one attempt was Knoller [5] and Betz [6] demonstrated the flapping wings generate both thrust and lift of the aerodynamic force, also found motion correlations between wingspan, flapping frequency, weight. According to Prandtl’s formulation, Birnbaum [7] developed the first analytical methods for calculating thrust and efficiencies of flat plates in pitching motion in moderate frequencies. After a couple of decades, the research of flapping wing became more detailed and wider, people observed that the operation of flapping wing is limited by objects itself. Some kinds of large birds such as hawks, their wings are fixed while soaring or gliding. But for the smaller birds and insects, they continuously flap in highly frequency in order to lift their whole body. In

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