The Responses Of Animals And Plants

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Viruses are biological agents that are extremely small and highly infectious. It possesses the ability in infecting all cell types, from complex eukaryotes such as plants and animals, to microorganisms including archaea and bacteria. [1] However, it could only rely on infecting a host cell for viral replication, which when infecting a host cell it incorporates its genetic materials into the host cell DNA and uses the host’s cellular component for replication, such that the cell produces viral proteins and genetic materials for assembling new viron instead of its usual products. [2]
Upon viral infection, a series of immune responses will be provoked in the host cell, which these responses may vary in different life forms. The aim of this essay is to explore the antiviral responses in animals and plants; comparing the responses mechanisms that are common in both parties, as well as investigating their relative unique responses.

Introduction – Viral infection in plants and animals
Some viruses could only infect certain or several species, while others is capable of infecting many. The range of different types of cells that a virus could infect is regarded as its host range. Plant viruses has a narrower host range such that they only replicate in living plant cells and fails to infect animal cells. [3] On the other hand, while some animal viruses are known to be species-specific, such as smallpox virus that could only infect humans; there are also viruses that has a board host
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