Although the term cardiovascular disease refers to a disorder of the cardiovascular system, it is usually associated with atherosclerosis, also known as arterial disease. It is considered the leading cause of deaths in the world, taking 17.1 million lives a year. There are only a few factors that are non-modifiable, these being the persons age, gender, family history and their race and ethnicity. Although there are non-modifiable risk factors, there are multiple multiple risk factors that are modifiable that anyone can use to prevent getting any type of cardiovascular disease. These people just need to have the motivation to be able to change themselves and their lifestyles in order to better
Hypertension is the medical term for high blood pressure. A normal blood pressure is 120/80. A blood pressure reading higher or equal to 140/90 is considered abnormally high. Elevated blood pressure means your heart is working harder than normal, putting both your heart and arteries under great strain. High blood pressure is serious business.
The heart pumps blood into the arteries and the force of the blood pushing against blood vessel walls is called blood pressure. Arteries carry the blood throughout the body. High blood pressure is also know as hypertension and is very dangerous in many different ways. One way is that it makes the heart have to work harder in order to pump the blood to the body. Secondly it contributes to hardening of the arteries and lastly, it also contributes to heart failure. A healthy heart is essential to life and having high blood pressure it not healthy for the heart. It has been proven that there are many different causes that have been linked to high blood pressure.
Etiology – Hypertensive heart disease is associated with high blood pressure related to the heart's arteries and muscles. Blood is transported to the heart by coronary arteries. High blood pressure causes blood vessels to become narrow which can cause the blood flow to the heart to slow and even stop. Sometimes blood clots form and get stuck in the narrowed arteries and put the person at serious risk of a heart attack.
Hypertensive heart disease refers to the heart and it is caused by high blood pressure. Hypertensive heart disease can cause serious health problems and is the leading cause of death from high blood pressure. There is a few symptoms of knowing if you are affected by hypertensive heart disease it can cause chest pain, tightness or pressure in the chest area, shortness of breath, fatigue, pain in the neck back, arms, or shoulders, persistent cough, loss of appetite, foot or ankle swelling. If you have hypertensive heart disease you could experience those symptoms listed above or some may not experience any of those depending on the severity of the disease. The diagnosis contains a few different steps. There will review the patients’ medical history
One source of great mortality and morbidity in Europe and North America is the cardiovascular disease, Atherosclerosis. It is recognized as a chronic inflammatory disease of the intermediate and large arteries characterized by the thickening of the arterial wall and is the primary cause of coronary and cerebrovascular heart disease (Wilson, 2005). It accounts for 4.35 million deaths in Europe and 35% death in the UK each year. Mortality rate are generally higher in men than pre-menopausal woman. Past the menopause, a woman’s risk is similar to a man’s (George and Johnston, 2010). Clinical trials have confirmed that lipid accumulation, endothelial dysfunction, cell proliferation, inflammation matrix alteration and foam cell formation are
To be precise, the subjects or people under study were 1,029, and they were selected randomly. The time frame was six years thus very ideal in observing the outcome of the experiment. In this case scenario, the study design used was Cohort study as it involved follow-up studies. Apart from these, a group of individuals were observed together for the same period. The key results were that those who took the medication in the morning were more probable in developing type 2 diabetes by comparing them with those that took their medication at night. Some of the criteria for causation include the type of food one consumes. Another criterion for causation is a person’s weight and also genetic where diabetes affects people of the same lineage thus passed from one generation to another. Lastly, as reported by Melissa Healy in her article, some other criteria for causation of diabetes is taking blood pressure drugs in the morning as compared to taking them at night.
Hypertension is widely considered to be one of the most important risk factors of cardiovascular diseases (angina, arrhythmia, etc.). It is the second leading disease that causes mortality in the world. Hypertension is the condition when there is an increase in the force of blood on the walls of vessels. It can also be defined as an arterial blood pressure that is raised above 140/90 mm Hg (systolic/ diastolic BP). Hypertension can be classified into Secondary hypertension and Essential hypertension. When specific cause is evident but heredity, and various physiological parameters play a role in increasing blood pressure is known as Essential Hypertension. Secondary Hypertension is one where the cause is known. According to WHO guidelines between 2006 and 2015, deaths due to cardiovascular diseases are expected to increase by 17% while the deaths from infectious diseases, nutritional deficiencies, maternal and prenatal conditions are projected to decline by 3%. The main causes of hypertension includes the age ,hereditary, gender, extra weight, alcohol consumption, stress life, lazy life etc.
The purpose of this report is two discuss the Pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, proposed benefits, research method, results of research, and possible-nursing implications of newly approved drugs for the treatment of hypertension. These drugs include Atacand HCT and Diltiazem HCL. All newly approved drugs from the FDA are either new drugs or new formulations of older drugs. The information contained in this report was derived from various web pages and online search engines.
Mrs. A (pseudonym) is an 83-year-old Samoan female of Christian religion who was admitted to an urban hospital on 02/04/15 by GP referral. She came in with chest pain associated with productive cough and shortness of breath (SOB) on exertion. She also complained of having recurrent episodes of vomiting mixed with saliva and fatigue. She has a history of asthma, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus on Metformin and double incontinence due to a long-standing history of intermittent constipation. Her chest computed tomographic (CT) revealed right lower lobe opacity indicating pulmonary consolidation, which means that her right lower lung has accumulated exudates in the alveoli that would have normally been filled by gas, indicative of bacterial pneumonia. Furthermore, a sputum gram stain sample collected from Mrs. A showed gram-positive bacteria, which is also a characteristic of pneumonia. Her blood tests revealed a high haemoglobin count, which may be caused by an underlying lung disease, as well as high white blood cell count confirming the presence of infection. Considering all diagnostic results, Mrs. A was diagnosed with right lower lobe bacterial pneumonia.
Approximately one in every three adult’s ages 20 years old and older are diagnosed with high blood pressure or hypertension. Hypertension affects 78 million people in the United States and is equally prevalent in both men and woman (Crabtree et al., 2013). Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (Hajjar & Kotchen, 2003). It can lead to stroke, myocardial infarction, renal failure, heart failure, neurological issues, and death if not detected early and not treated properly (James, Oparil, Carter, & et al., 2014). Approximately 9.4 million deaths in 2010 were attributed to high blood pressure (Angell, De Cock, & Frieden, 2015). About 54% of strokes, 47% of coronary heart disease, and 25 % of other cardiovascular diseases are attributed to high blood pressure (Arima, Barzi, & Chalmers, 2011).
Hypertension is defined a consistent elevation of the systolic blood pressure above 140mmHg, a diastolic pressure above 90mmHg or a report of taking antihypertensive medication. Early diagnosis and effective management of hypertension is essential because it is a major modifiable risk factor to cerebrovascular, cardiac, vascular, and renal diseases. The higher the blood pressure, the greater the risk for heart attack, heart failure, stroke, and kidney disease.