The Role Of Host Inflammatory Immune Response On Tissue Destruction

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Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease process which is initiated by bacterial challenge and characterized by destruction of tooth supporting tissues. It is the most prevalent form of bone disease in humans and a modifying factor of systemic health of patients 1. However recent evidence suggests that mere presence of putative periodontal pathogens is not sufficient for initiation of disease process 2. It is rather persistent host inflammatory response against those pathogens that leads to periodontal tissue destruction 2.
Over the years researchers have tried to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying this tissue destruction. It is well accepted that pro-inflammatory mediators are associated with tissue destruction whereas anti-inflammatory mediators can attenuate the disease progression. Discovery of subsets of T cells with distinctive characteristics and immunological properties has made this pro-inflammatory vs anti-inflammatory scenario more complex3. Therefore the aim of this review is to discuss the role of host inflammatory immune response in tissue destruction seen in periodontal disease.
Role of Innate Immunity in Periodontal Tissue Destruction
Previous exposure to a pathogen is not required for activation of innate immune response. This arm of immune system involves oral epithelia which perform the barrier function and vascular and cellular elements which establish and propagate the inflammatory response.
Periodontal disease is
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