The Role Of Inhibitory Modulation Of Languages Among Bilinguals
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The Role of Inhibitory Modulation of Languages among Bilinguals
In a rich linguistic environment, where more than 7000 languages are spoken in 149 countries, multilingualism and bilingualism are inevitable (Crystal, 2003; Grosjean, 2010). While the causes of increased bilingualism and multilingualism can vary, the repercussions of this demographic shift are wide reaching (O’Brien, Curtin, & Naqvi, 2014). Consequently, research on bilingualism and multilingualism has also dramatically increased in the last few years in quantity, quality and breadth (Bhatia & William, 2013).
In the past two decades, series of discoveries has changed the way bilingualism was understood (Kroll, Bobb, & Hoshino, 2014). The consequences of bilingualism are not limited to native and second language but appear to reflect reorganization of brain networks that hold implications for the ways in which bilinguals negotiate cognitive competition more generally. The "bilingual" experience for every individual is unique as it depends upon the context, linguistic proficiency, and purpose. There is also a great variability in the amount and quality of exposure to the languages that the individual learns. Due to this capriciousness in bilingual characteristics, defining bilingualism becomes problematic and raises number of theoretical and methodological concerns (Hamers & Blanc, 2000).
The term ‘bilingualism’ is generally defined as an individual’s ability to use two languages (ASHA, 2004; European