The Role Of Peer Rejection, Aggression, And Gender

2227 Words9 Pages
Julie A. Hubbard’s 2001 study, “Emotion Expression Processes in Children’s Peer Interaction: The Role of Peer Rejection, Aggression, and Gender” investigates sociometric status, aggression, and gender differences in the way children express anger, happiness, and sadness. To conduct her study, Hubbard collected data during the spring semester of the school year from 601 students (303 girls, 298 boys) enrolled in 34 second-grade classrooms in various southeastern public schools in the United States. The children were roughly eight years old and over 90% of the sample was African American. 111 of these children then participated in the laboratory phase of the experiment over the summer, in which each child interacted with a confederate for two normalized, emotion-arousing, competitive game paradigms (one in which the confederate was fair and the other in which the confederate cheated). These sessions were videotaped and later observationally coded based on sadness, anger, and happiness through facial expression, verbal inflections, and nonverbal actions (Hubbard, 2001, 1428). Half of these children were rejected, with the other half being sociometrically average and half of the children were deemed aggressive by their peers, with the other half being non aggressive. Hubbard used a quasi-experimental design for her experiment. The main indicator of this is that the experiment was not truly randomized and there is no control group. Instead, each participant played the same two
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