If Scientific Management is as outdated and inhuman as many organizational theorists believe, why is it so prevalent in contemporary organizations?
An examination of the management literature reveals a variety of constructs designed to allow an analysis of the functions of management and the roles of managers who perform the management task. These constructs can be broadly categorised into technical processes (with a scientific basis) and social processes (with a human relations basis).
Henry Fayol was working in France at a mining company as an engineer who later became the director of the company when it employed more than 1,000 people. He came up with the theory of management functions from his observations and experience while working in the company. He also established and published 14 important principles of management. However, Henry Mintzberg dismissed Fayol’s management functions claiming that managers nowadays apply little planning or not at all, hence, their work is unpredictable (Bateman, 2012). Mintzberg came up with three broad categories of managerial roles. These two theories are seen as competing views where one seems to be the base of the other.
Early management theories adopted by such proponents as Henri Fayol, Mary Parker Follett and Max Weber are relevant in todays’ world. In this essay I am going to discuss about all three theorists and how their theories are still relevant for managers in the 21st century in meeting the challenges. In the classical approach to management there are three branches under it. They are, scientific management, administrative principles and bureaucratic organisation. Henry Fayol and Mary Parker Follett developed theories for administrative principles and Max Weber developed a theory for bureaucratic organisation (Schermerhorn et al. 2014, p.36). First we will be going through Henri Fayol and then Mary Parker Follett as they both made theories
Asforthe word ‘management’, there has been long debate about its meaning. For our purpose, we take the perspective of the functions that managers
Although published over a century ago, Frederick Winslow Taylor’s renowned work The Principles of Scientific Management set forth a theory that to this day is subjected to a similar degree of critique and debate to that in the early 20th century. While Taylor’s ideas were evidently influenced by the works of earlier researchers, it is he who is credited as the “father” of the scientific management movement (Jeacle, 2004, p. 1164). As such, scientific management itself is synonymous with Taylor to the extent that it is commonly referred to as “Taylorism.” Nevertheless, this view can be misleading – key principles of the theory are generally perceived as applicable only in the manufacturing sector where Taylor’s research was directed, whereas in reality they can be applied quite effectively to the service sector. While the model is plagued by flaws in both industries, it can nevertheless still be regarded as a valuable framework for managing organisations and their human resources.
Non classical conceptualizations of managerial work (Mintzberg, Stewart etc.) help define the nature of managerial work. However Fayol’s classical approach best conceptualizes management functions and a manager’s job, so it is the best source to be used for educational purposes.
Critically discuss the extent to which Fayol's classical analysis of the management function has largely been made redundant by the more recent empirical studies of what managers actually do, such as that favoured by Mintzberg.
This paper will start off by comparing, and contrasting the role of the manager and a
Compare and contrast the traditional roles of managers presented by Fayol’s early writings with more contemporary research of Stewart and Mintzberg. Support your answers with examples.
The book General and Industrial Management (1949, French 1916) was the first book published by Henri Fayol. After that others followed and created their own theory of management built upon the basis of Fayol’s classical theory of management, some, for instance: Mintzberg in his book The Nature of Managerial Work (1973), suggests a different view on management.
Subsequently Mintzberg believing the reality of management to be vastly different from the true image went on to offer his own description of what ‘to manage’ entails. This comprised of 10 roles which can be split into 3 subsections. Mintzberg (1975) “Formal authority gives rise to the three interpersonal roles, which in turn give rise to the three informational roles; these two sets of roles enable the manager to play the four decisional roles”. Although Mintzberg’s attempt to reform the views on management was successful in stirring other theorists to conduct studies in the area, he can be criticised for the language he used not being explicit enough and although he has empirical evidence to support his discovery of how managers behave, it does not imply this is the way managers should behave as this view of management behaviour may not be that of an effective manager?
Firstly, there are four managerial functions as identified in Henri Fayol’s research that underlying the framework of a manager’s jobs which are planning, organizing, leading and controlling. Planning as the first step in managerial functions requires the managers to develop strategies and plans to define and aim at some organization’s goals. (Education Portal, 2014) The managers are also responsible for determining and allocating the limited resources. This is called as organizing function. Next, in the leading function, managers involve in communicating, motivating, encouraging and inspiriting his subordinates towards higher productivity. (Education Portal, 2014) Controlling means how the activities are monitored by managers to ensure the goals are achieved as planned. (Robbins, et.al, 2012).For example, a manager who wants to increase the sales of his company
Scientific Management is a theory of management that analyzed and synthesized workflows. Its main objective was improving economic efficiency, especially labor productivity.
The paper will explore different theories of Management, include Henri Fayol and Henry Mintzberg. This section of this paper provides an overview of functions, roles and skills required of a manager. What is Management? Management can define as the process of reaching organisational goals by working with and through people and other organisational resources. (Management Innovation, 2008).