The Role of the Environment in Personality Development of Children

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Abstract Various components influence the overall development of children. It is not simply the society in which each child is born and lives but certain and identifiable parts of the society. Although every aspect of child development involves genetics, environmental factors contribute significantly in the personality development of children. Subcultures of race/ethnicity, economic status, faiths/religion, and locality/region, in addition to particular groups such as friends and family distinctly affect each child. Throughout the lifespan, people constantly confront new or varying situations—both individual and societal—and need to understand how to adjust to these conditions. The most significant time of acculturation occurs during…show more content…
Johnson, Liu and Cohen (2011) performed a longitudinal study on the development of adaptive and maladaptive personality traits in relation to parenting behaviors and suggested that positive child-rearing behaviors foster the development of adaptive childhood personality traits that continue into adulthood and contribute to decreased levels of maladaptive traits. Schofield, and Conger, Donnellan, Jochem, Widaman and Conger, (2012) contend that knowing what predicts low rates of maladjustment behavior will not necessarily reveal what produces a competent individual. Therefore, Schofield, et al. (2012) performed a longitudinal study of the influences positive parental characteristics with regard to adolescent personality traits, and hypothesized that higher levels of adolescent alpha-linked traits are associated with higher levels of alpha-linked traits of parents. Findings showed an indirect link between parent personality and later adolescent personality through positive parenting and proposed that parents contribute significantly in the development of adolescent personality traits which encourage proficiency and personal well-being across the life span (Schofield, et al., 2012). Authoritative parents foster well-adjusted children because the parents are emotionally supportive and establish well-defined limits for the child. Children reared in this manner are generally “independent, friendly with peers, self-assertive, and cooperative”
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