The Scientists : The Physicists

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Summer Reading Quiz: The Experimenters, Twelve Great Chemists
The Experimenters goes in depth into the lives of twelve great chemists. Chemistry had been apart of our world since the beginning of time. Chemistry explains why the sky is blue and what makes up our very existence. The twelve chemists discussed in this novel include Antoine Lavoisier, Joseph Priestley, Jons Jacob Berzelius, Justus von Liebig, Dmitri Mendeleyev, Louis Pasteur, Marie and Irene Curie, Linus Pauling, Richard Willstatter, and Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin. Each chapter starts at their birthplace and will take you through the life of the chemist, from greatest discoveries to personal relationships. You will read about the struggles and breakthroughs each chemist
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Even though he is gone, his discoveries still live on to this very day.
Joseph Priestley is known as the diligent experimenter and furious free thinker. Priestley was the founder of pneumatic chemistry, the chemistry of gases. He was also the inventor of carbonated water. Priestley also discovered what we today call photosynthesis. He also found “nitrous air” or nitrous oxide; “diminished nitrous air” or nitrous which is now known as laughing gas, a useful anesthetic; “acid air” or hydrochloric acid; “alkaline air” or ammonia; “vitriolic acid air” or sulphur dioxide. Last but not least, his most important discovery of all time, his discovery of oxygen, which he called “dephlogisticated air.” He had discovered the gas which is the most abundant element in the Earth’s crust and makes up one-fifth of its atmosphere.
John Dalton, also known as the Quaker Atomist, developed the widely known Chemical Atomic Theory. His ideas for this theory can be easily stated. All elements are made up of tiny invisible particles and that these particles, following Heraclitus, would be called “atoms.” All atoms of a given element are chemically identical. Atoms cannot be destroyed or created during chemical reactions, although atoms of different elements may combine to form compounds. The chemical reaction forming a compound does not involve a change in atoms, it involves a change in
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