The Scramble for Africa

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For thirty years after Otto von Bismarck called the Berlin Conference in 1884 to discuss the division of Africa between European powers, said powers both occupied and colonized Africa. Many different intricate societies who each had different reactions to the Scramble for Africa composed Africa of the era. While a large majority of Africans reacted to the European's presence violently, others relied on religious apple or polite denials to soften the blow of imperialism. Violent reactions to European imperialism spanned across all parts of Africa; however, large weapons gaps between the Europeans and Africans were often the deciding factor of the success of these skirmishes. Ndansi Kumalo, an African veteran of the Ndebele people of southern Africa's rebellion against the British in 1896, recalls that he "had an old gun [while] they-the White men-fought [the Africans] with big guns, machine guns, and rifles" (Doc. 4). Similarly, an African chief's description of a battle in 1877 on the Congo River against British and African mercenaries demonstrates the unfamiliarity many Africans had with firearms. When describing the battle, the chief mentions "the long sticks [that] spat fire" (Doc. 9). The speaker of document 9 carries the idea that white men are evil based on their actions, telling them that they “have sickness in [their] heads, for this [bloodshed] is not justice” (Document 9). On the other hand, Ethiopia, while still acting violently, reacted to the forceful

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