Essay on The Second Worldwide Killer: Cancer

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Cancer, called malignancy as well, is a class of diseases described by out-of-control cell proliferation. According to the announcements of World Health Organization (WHO), cancer is the second leading reason of death worldwide (around 13% of all deaths in 2008). The disease arises from a transformation that occurs in one normal single cell in a multistage process towards tumorigenesis. Management is not accomplished with a single therapeutic; patients often get a combination of therapies dependent on the type and stage of cancer. Predominantly, management of cancer includes the utilize of several modalities of therapy including: palliative care, chemotherapy, radiation, surgery, gene therapy, hormone therapy and immunotherapy 1.
Mutation
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Cancer, called malignancy as well, is a class of diseases described by out-of-control cell proliferation. According to the announcements of World Health Organization (WHO), cancer is the second leading reason of death worldwide (around 13% of all deaths in 2008). The disease arises from a transformation that occurs in one normal single cell in a multistage process towards tumorigenesis. Management is not accomplished with a single therapeutic; patients often get a combination of therapies dependent on the type and stage of cancer. Predominantly, management of cancer includes the utilize of several modalities of therapy including: palliative care, chemotherapy, radiation, surgery, gene therapy, hormone therapy and immunotherapy 1.
Mutation is an alteration in genome of an organism which results from unrepaired injury to DNA or RNA genomes, the event which is ordinary in cancer. These molecular mutations may consequence in misregulation or disturbance of normal gene function, which results over- or under-expression of some enzymes 2. For instance, alterations in the 5’untranslated region of mRNAs may prime to an up-regulation of the enzyme 3. Mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2) enzymes, a negative regulator of the p53, have been assessed overexpressed by as much as 100-fold in a variety of tumor cells 4.
Prodrugs are inactive or less active molecules, which undergo chemical or enzymatic biotransformation transforming to an active pharmacological agent in body 5. Since a
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