Essay on The Second Worldwide Killer: Cancer

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Cancer, called malignancy as well, is a class of diseases described by out-of-control cell proliferation. According to the announcements of World Health Organization (WHO), cancer is the second leading reason of death worldwide (around 13% of all deaths in 2008). The disease arises from a transformation that occurs in one normal single cell in a multistage process towards tumorigenesis. Management is not accomplished with a single therapeutic; patients often get a combination of therapies dependent on the type and stage of cancer. Predominantly, management of cancer includes the utilize of several modalities of therapy including: palliative care, chemotherapy, radiation, surgery, gene therapy, hormone therapy and immunotherapy 1. Mutation…show more content…
One talented area for targeting tumors specifically is enzyme prodrug therapy. We hypothesize that EAPs can help to overcome adverse effects of canonical chemotherapeutic agents. Study on a different class of prodrugs developed antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT). ADEPT is mostly used to achieve two goals: First, an enzyme antibody conjugate is administered and allowed sufficient time to bind to tumor cells and to be cleared from the circulation. Afterward, a prodrug is administered and selectively activated extracellularly at the tumor site . The most broadly employed application of ADEPT is in cancer target therapy, where the cytotoxic agents are administered in an inactive (prodrug) form after unbound mAb-enzyme is passively or actively removed from circulation. The prodrug can be activated selectively by the mAb-enzyme conjugate on the surface of cancer cells and destroy them. Meanwhile, significant progress has been made with ADEPT methods, since that is possible to plan prodrugs that are not activated by human enzymes by using enzymes of nonhuman origin 9,10. Charing Cross Hospital, London, carried out the first pilot-scale clinical trial of ADEPT using an anti-CEA F(ab′)2 monoclonal antibody conjugated to the carboxypeptidase G2 (a bacterial enzyme) 11. Subsequently, the Royal Free Hospital, London, used the
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