The Shift Towards Clean Energy

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Even though the analytics predict a considerable increase in electricity access throughout the next decades, this trend will contribute less than 1% to total energy consumption and energy-related greenhouse gas emissions.
The Shift Towards Clean Energy


Technology development and deployment is an essential part of creating reliable, affordable, and sustainable energy. Besides the development of modern and sustainable technology, improving technologies of the deployment and energy consumption received from fossil fuels may contribute greatly to the reduction of negative externalities.
Conventional Energy Sources
Clean coal technologies mainly consist of carbon Capture and Storage systems (CCS), coal to liquids (CTL), and
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will be gradually declining (Figure 15). Also, unconventional gas production requires further development to increase its efficiency and reduce leakage and CO2 emissions.
Figure 15. Costs to reduce CO2 emissions relative to gas CCGTs in the U.S. (450 Scenario)

Source: Energy and Climate Change. International Energy Agency. 2015

Nuclear power is high efficient and does not produce CO2 emissions. However, it creates many concerns about its operation, waste disposal, and a risk of the nuclear accident. Currently, the Generation IV, the most advanced technology of nuclear energy production that promises to provide safe, reliable, and sustainable energy.9 This system is still in the research and development phase that includes developing the following six types of reactors: (1) Gas-cooled fast reactor, (2) Lead-cooled fast reactor, (3) Molten salt reactor, (4) Sodium-cooled fast reactor, (5) Supercritical-water-cooled reactor, (6) Very-high-temperature reactor.
Renewable Energy
The research and development of solar power and other new renewable technologies such as wind and marine will continue to move in two major directions: cost reduction (Figure 16) and intermittency elimination.

Figure 16. Costs for different energy sources/technologies in 2040 in comparison with 2014 Source: World Energy Outlook. IEA. 2015
Energy storage technologies such as batteries and hydrogen will advance the deployment
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