The Shortage Of Fresh Water

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Water as one of essential elements of life but it seems not being paid much attention by the majority of people. The waste of water, over-pumped of underground water and water pollution are causing the water resources to become a serious international issue. Gleick (2011, pg. xi) proposes that the speed of human usage on fresh water is faster than the time for the Earth to refill it. In addition, Dinar (2008, pg. 22) and World Bank (1995 quoted in New York Times, cited Wolf 1998) state that the conflicts for the twenty-first century would be based on hydro resources. The shortage of fresh water is not affecting only on the minority people or regionals but it might also leads to political tensions between nations. Although Samson and…show more content…
Some argue that the shortage of water has the probability leading towards war (Cooley 1984; Naff 1994; Starr 1991, cited Dinar 2008, p.10); however, Dinar (2008, p.10) believes that it can also point to cooperation by satisfying each individual needs or offering benefits such as hydroelectricity. Ellis (2013, p.243) makes a statement that desires cannot all be satisfy; which shows the importance of the negotiation during cooperation, as Buzan (et. al., 1998 cited Zeitoun M., et. al., 2011, p.162) believes that the influence is transmitted through words in formal negotiations. Moreover, one of the possible cooperation methods is water transferring which has already been used in practices; the statistics from Just and Netanyahu (1998, cited Bhaduri 2008, p.30) shows that it has been adopted by 53 international river basins. Bhaduri (2008, p.30) explains the purpose of water transferring is to shift the water from basin systems to the water-scarcity areas. In addition, Bhaduri (2008, p.31) also shows the model of water transfer by using Ganges River Basin as an example. It is the partnership between India, Nepal, and Bangladesh; the strategy is for Nepal to build a dam on the Kosi River in order to transfer the water to India and Bangladesh; they are already sharing the Ganges
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