The Sino-Indian Border Conflicts

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1. The 1834 annexation of Ladakh made it possible for Indians and Chinese to acknowledge that there was a clear border between their countries. The British played an important role in this process as they influenced both communities to reach the conclusion that it was in their best interest to set clear borderlines in order to avoid experiencing conflicts in the future. W. H. Johnson's attempt to implement the Johnson line failed miserably as it influenced the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir to believe that it was only natural for him to annex large parts of the Xianjing territory. These actions would not have been possible if the Chinese did not experience internal conflicts at the time. The Macartney-Macdonald line proposed an interesting solution to the Russian problem, but it was difficult and almost impossible for it to come into effect as both the British and the Chinese were hesitant about supporting it. 2. The British expanded westward and further delineated borderlines with China and made it possible for India to have a common border with the Chinese. Even with the fact that both the British and the Indians expected the Chinese to comply with their plans, the Chinese authorities got actively involved in criticizing such moves. Even with the fact that the McMahon line was believed by the British to set the actual border between India and China, none of the countries have ever agreed with regard to the matter. 3. The Chinese government decided to annex Tibet
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