The Skull Has The Second Greatest Degree Of Sexual Dimorphism

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2.2.1.The Skull
It has been shown that the skull has the second greatest degree of sexual dimorphism with reported accuracies for sex determination as high as 77% (Stewart, 1979), 80-90% (Hanihara, 1959; Krogman, 1962; Cox and Mays, 2000) and even >95% (Baughan and Demirjian, 1978; Briggs, 1998; Franklin, Freedman and Milne, 2005; Kimmerle, Ross and Slice, 2008). However, it is thought that novice forensic anthropologists might report lower accuracies than these since, for example Stewart (1979) and Krogman (1962) had highly experienced participants analysing the skeletal remains. Moreover, some disagree that the skull is the second most sexually dimorphic and argue that certain postcranial measurements for example of the long bones, fare
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Yet, this and others, are still some of most commonly used sites for sexing. Keen (1950) expressed that because morphology is often related to size and robustness, determining sex is extremely difficult unless extreme features are expressed, such as a very small mastoid process that projects only a small distance for females and a massive mastoid process that projects a great distance from the inferior margins of the skull for males. Furthermore Meindl et al. (1985) and Walker (1995) have discussed that the morphology of sites on the skull of both sexes appear more masculine as the person ages, which would also hinder the accuracy of determining the sex of skeletal remains. Buikstra and Ubelaker (1994, p.16) also caution that "estimation of sex can be difficult if the observer is not familiar with the overall pattern of variability within the population from which the sample" they are evaluating is drawn and so as a consequence can reduce accuracy in determining sex.

Cranial suture closure is considered by many as a successful form of age determination (Meindl and Lovejoy, 1985; Masset, 1989; Mann et al., 1991, Nawrocki, 1998) and is another most commonly employed method of age determination amongst anthropologists. Up to 27
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