Introduction Control theory was developed by Travis Hirschi in 1969. It is also known as the social bond theory. Under the social control theory, individuals break the law due to a breakdown with their societal bond. Moreover, Hirschi refers to four elements which constitute the societal bond. These elements are as outlined below;
• Attachment to other individuals
• Commitment to following rules
• Involvement by typical social behaviors
• Belief - a basic value system
When these elements break down, Hirschi suggests that an individual may then participate in criminal activities. For example, if one ceases to engage in typical social behavior (involvement) or have contact with other individuals (attachment), one may have the time to become involved in deviant criminal activity.
Additionally, under social control theory, external or internal controls can cause a person to refrain from acting in a criminal way. When an individual engages in a criminal activity, the activity is due to lack of social control from the…show more content… For instance, it is much easier to steal money than to work for it. Therefore in this means that crime requires no special explanation. According to control theorists, people do not engage in crime because of the controls or restraints placed on them. These controls may be viewed as barriers to crime because they refer to those factors that prevent them from engaging in crime. While strain and social learning theory focus on those factors that push or lead the individual into crime, control theory focuses on the factors that restrain the individual from engaging in criminal activities. Control theory goes on to argue that people differ in their level of control or in the restraints they face to crime. These differences explain differences in crime since some people are free to engage in crime than