The Social Determinants Of Health

1822 WordsApr 14, 20178 Pages
Health is multidimensional and is largely determined by biological factors such as genes and heredity, however, health is known to be influenced by many other factors including environment, social interactions, income, education, culture, and individual behaviours, otherwise known as the ‘social determinants of health’ (McMurray & Clendon, 2011; Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2017). This knowledge of health’s vulnerable nature has led to an increase in the importance of health promotion (HP) to the provision of primary health care (PHC) within the Australian population (McMurray & Clendon, 2011; Perez & Luquis, 2013). HP refers to public policy which creates awareness of and addresses the impacts of the determinants of…show more content…
The ‘Declaration of Alma-Ata’ delivered the foundations of PHC by identifying a lack of, and requirement for equality in health and health care between different communities and countries (Talbot & Verrinda, 2013). The Alma-Ata defines PHC as being a responsibility of governments to enable equal access to health care despite the varying impacts of socioeconomic, sociocultural or environmental determinants, and should incorporate, at a minimum; education to patients, preventative care, curative care, rehabilitation, adequate food and water supply, access to medication, prevention of disease spread through immunisation, adequate sanitation, and support through affordable access to care and increased awareness (Talbot & Verrinda, 2013). The ‘Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion’ further builds on providing PHC, as outlined by the Alma-Ata, by taking a HP approach (Talbot & Verrinda, 2013; WHO, 2017). The charter defines HP as a process that encourages individuals to take charge over improving their health by providing a framework of resources aimed to educate, enable, support and provide (Talbot & Verrinda, 2013; Keleher & MacDougall, 2015; WHO, 2017). PHC and HP are largely focused around the social determinants of health and aim to reduce the inequalities in health that may potentially be caused by the impact of these determinants. Challenges are

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