The Space Shuttle Columbia Explosion

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On 1st of February, 2003, the space shuttle Columbia exploded when it re-entered the Earth’s atmosphere after finished a 16 days mission in space. All seven astronauts were dead because of this incident. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) had stopped the space shuttle program for more than two years to investigate this tragedy. In the 16 days period, the astronauts did approximately 80 experiments on different categories, for example, life science and material science [1]. An investigation later has found out that the disaster was caused by a problem on the day that took off on 16th of January.
What happens when launch? It was the Columbia’s 28th mission, which was originally scheduled to launch two years ago, on 11th of January, 2001, but was delayed 13 times due to different missions took priority in the two years period. On 16th January at 1210 a.m., a problem with the external tank attachment ring had discovered. Due to this fault, the ring plate might not meet the safety factor requirement of 1.4, ‘that is, able to withstand 1.4 times the maximum load expected in operation.’(CAIB 2003 p.33). Then, based on Columbia space shuttle had delayed for too long, the safety factor requirement was waived. The active manager of the launch team then gave a GO signal to the space shuttle. At 57 seconds after launched, Columbia received a wind shear which increased the aerodynamic force on the external tank. It might be one of the reasons that leads to the
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