The Stages of Carbohydrates in Metabolism

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Metabolism is defined as the all the physical and chemical processes in the body that generate or use energy. Metabolism can further be categorized into two subtypes; catabolism and anabolism. Catabolism is the breakdown of large molecules into smaller ones molecules. In this scenario, energy is usually generated. Anabolism is the synthesis of large molecules from small molecules. In this scenario, energy is usually used. In humans the process of metabolism consist of four stages. These four stages are digestion, formation of acetyl-CoA, citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain/oxidative. The first two stages of metabolism are different depending on what nutrient is being metabolized. The following will depict the stages carbohydrates go through. Digestion of carbohydrates begins in the mouth. The enzyme salivary amylase begins catalyzing the starch molecules. This breakdown is minimal though. After the carbohydrates are masticated by the mouth and catalyzed by amylase, the mixture is swallowed and travels through the esophagus down to the stomach. The stomach’s acidic environment then denatures the amylase and digestion is paused. The mixture, which is now called chyme, enters the small intestine. Pancreatic amylase is secreted into the small intestine from the pancreas and digestion continues. Pancreatic amylase catalyzes the polysaccharides into disaccharides. Enzymes called brush border enzymes that reside on the mucosa of the small intestine complete the
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