Hispanic and Latinos have been the nation's fastest-growing ethnic population in the past several decades. HIV diagnoses in Latino and Hispanic populations have been rising in the past decades. In 2011, Latinos and Hispanics represented 17% of the total population in the US, but however, they also accounted for 21% of the estimated adults diagnosed with HIV infections in the United States. In fact, in 1985, Latinos were at 15% of all diagnosed HIV cases and in 2010, it increased to 22% in the U.S. National Latinos AIDS Awareness day is observed each year to increase awareness of that impact of HIV on the Hispanic and Latino population. The recent slogan—To End ADS Commit Act—was chosen to mobilize Hispanics to commit ending HIV in their communities.
African American young men are infected with HIV at an alarmingly high rate in comparison to other races. The negative stigmas that is attached to having HIV in the black community, especially for men can be extremely detrimental and harmful to their overall health. One stigma that was attached to having HIV was death, death was at one time believed to be imminent, and now HIV is about restructuring their lives to face the future (Buseh, Kelber, Stevens & Park, 2008, p.409), yet they still battle other stigmas surrounded around HIV.
African-Americans are the ethnic group most affected by HIV/AIDS. Ironically african-americans represent 14% of the population of the United States , but represent 44% across the gender line. African-american men represent 70% of HIV infections among the ethnic group, however african-american women are also highly at risk of HIV infection. Indeed they have a rate of infection that is 15 times greater than the rate for caucasion women (HIV among African-Americans, 2012). Most African-american women (85%) are infected with HIV through heterosexual sex, often with partners, who claim to be
Due to gaps in policy oversight, the percentage of minorities living with HIV and AIDS in the United States remains high. It has remained high due in part to policies that were implemented during the early 90’s, emblematically The Ryan White Care Act, along with in policy makers for their failure to recognize the special needs and factors that pertain to minority groups, specifically African Americans and Non-white Hispanics. The racial disparities that have historically plagued these minority groups were initially overlooked in the policy making and implementation process. In turn, it is no disheartening wonder that certain figures and data are now representative of the minority demographic; example:
Many people are unaware of their health status further increasing transmission of disease in young adult African American(AA) women age 18-24. Human Immunodeficiency Viruses (HIV) infects and also destroy blood cells (i.e. lymphocytes) that the body need to fight off infection (Mays 2011). African American women HIV positive, age 18-24 the magnitude of issue of the health disparity in this particular population will be addressed along with the many factors of social and health determinants. The health concern is towards the increase of transmission among young AA mothers and their children who are the health outcomes in many ways than one. The many social and health determinants that affect the women today are on going cycles that have yet to be broken. African American women make 64% of new infection cases for HIV. African american obtain a vulnerability unlike other minorities. The health population’s culture and stigma has played an important role in the community. The concern for AA women is the increase of new cases and most importantly the spread of the disease to these women’s children. The mortality rate of AA women with HIV is 47.1% as of 2012. (Siddiqi 2015)
In Pennsylvania, a plaintiff claiming negligent infliction of emotional distress must establish one of these four situations: “1) that the defendant had a contractual or fiduciary duty; 2) plaintiff suffered a physical impact; 3) plaintiff was in a “zone of danger” and at risk of an immediate physical injury; or 4) plaintiff had a contemporaneous perception of tortious injury to a close relative.” Doe v. Phila. Cmty. Health Alternatives AIDS Task Force, 754 A.2d 25, 27 (Pa. Super. Ct. 2000). The first element does not apply to our client because there was no fiduciary or contractual duty relationship. Secondly, it could be argued that Nordlund suffered a physical impact because after Sumner’s accident, Nordlund could not eat, could not
Department of Health & Human Services the group of people who are disproportionately affected by HIV are African Americans Gay and Bisexual Men. From 2005 to 2014, diagnoses increased 22% among all African Americans Gay and bisexual men and 87% among young African Americans and gay and bisexual men. By the end of 2013, an approximation of 493,543 gay and bisexual men were living with the HIV infection. Of those, 152,303 (31%) were African American, 210,299 (43%) were white, and 104,529 (21%) were Hispanic/Latino (U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, 2016). Socioeconomic factors limited access to quality health care, lower income and educational levels, and higher rates of unemployment and incarceration may place some African American gay and bisexual men at higher risk for HIV than men of some other races/ethnicities.
According to recent statistics from the Centers for Disease Control, approximately 1.2 million individuals in the United States have HIV (about 14 percent of which are unaware of their infection and another 1.1 million have progressed to AIDS. Over the past decade, the number of HIV cases in the US has increased, however, the annual number of cases remains stable at about 50, 000 new cases per year. Within these estimates, certain groups tend to carry the burden of these disease, particularly the gay, bisexual, and men who have sex with men (MSM) and among race/ethnic groups, Blacks/African American males remain disproportionately affected. (CDC)
Human Immunodefiency Virus has become all too common in my hometown Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Rapidly this city has taken the number one spot leading the nation cases per capita of 100,000 people, according to Rene Taylor, Executive Director of Family Services of Greater Baton Rouge. (Feb., 2018). Baton Rouge holds its highest HIV cases in the North Baton Rouge area, where African Americas account for 95% of the residents. Studies show that age, poverty and education level is concurrent with most people infected with the virus. Baton Rouge has many organizations and government funded programs for all residents but coherence is proven to be low. Therefore, I posed the question: How do we decrease the HIV percental in Baton Rouge? I suggest we decrease the HIV epidemic in Baton Rouge by first, providing mandatory Education and statistics about the virus. Secondly, promoting
The prevalence of HIV in the African American community is unmatched by any other population. African Americans accounted for 49% of all HIV related deaths in 2010 (CDC, 2014). In my specialty area of family practice, I have encountered only one non-minority patient with HIV; all others have been African-American. This population needs to be of high consideration for disease education. African Americans are typically unaware of resources available to prevent the transmission of this disease, as well as testing available to them in their communities. African American children, especially, are at greater risk for HIV due to lack of knowledge and earlier age of engaging in sexual intercourse. They are typically unaware that their behavior can yield such a negative outcome (CDC, 2012). Many urban schools lack proper funding to accommodate a sexual education curriculum. It is of increased importance to raise awareness, educate and provide a plan of care for the African American teenage and adult population, as the incidence of this disease rises daily.
Unfortunately, many young people face barriers preventing them from accessing recommended and necessary sexual health services. Stigma, discrimination, lack of knowledge, cost, transportation, and perceived lack of confidentiality all pose substantial obstacles to the services capable of providing the healthcare and education needed to help prevent STIs and other issues such as unwanted pregnancies. This paper aims to investigate a current piece of legislation addressing this issue, the Youth Access to Sexual Health Services Act (YASHSA) of 2016 (H.R. 4475, S. 3360, 2016). In 2016 Senator Mazie K. Hirono (D-HI) and Congresswoman Alma Adams (D-NC-12) introduced this bill and if enacted, the YASHSA would provide grants to specific qualifying entities to increase and improve access and pathways for marginalized youth to obtain their sexual and reproductive health care services.
But before we discuss ways in reducing HIV stigma, we should talk about what it consists of in Baton Rouge. Stigma can become a chronic stressor that leads to poor coping skills, inadequate self-care, and risky sexual behaviors (Johnson et al. 72). According to an HIV Infrastructure Study conducted by the Southern HIV/AIDS Initiative, they discussed what the HIV stigma consisted of in Baton Rouge. After a few interviews with employees in HIV/AIDS clinics and people living with HIV/AIDS, they stated that one of the main reasons why people refuse to go to a clinic to get HIV tested or delay testing is because they are afraid that people they know might see them getting tested and assume the worst from them (Reif et al. 12). People also don’t want to get tested because they fear the repercussions of getting tested positive for HIV and that their family or loved ones might shun them away if they were HIV-positive. People should not care about who is going to see them getting tested because they are being smart about taking steps in knowing their HIV status instead of waiting to show signs of AIDS infection and then it’ll be too late to get any treatment. Moreover, one study evaluating the HIV Stigma Scale had some key observations. Out of one-hundred and ten HIV-positive African-Americans that were picked for this study, some of the appalling statements they agreed with the most
Various studies show evidence that link the relationship between social determinants of health and the risk for HIV. Interrelated social determinants of health can create a context of vulnerability and risk for HIV. It is very important to be able to recognize the interrelation components of HIV risk in order determine the HIV prevention response that is the most effective. For instance, research shows that HIV rates are significantly higher in Black men who have sex with men (MSM) than for MSM of other races. These rates, which are very disproportionate, are not attributable to a higher frequency of sexual risk behaviors. To appropriately address risk for MSM of different races, it is imperative to understand the process of disease transmission among these populations, in other words, the social determinants of health that are involved, such as access to healthcare (CHLA, 2012).
How beneficial is having knowledge about the down low? Not enough of our society is informed of how detrimental or costly this “lifestyle” is or can be. Surprisingly, the risk factors include an association with sexually transmitted diseases most notably HIV/AIDS. According to Lisa Bond, “the down low has been used to describe black men who identify as heterosexual yet put their female partners at risk for HIV infection by secretly engaging in homosexual sex”. Whether or not we conclude that black men are in fact "prime agents" for spreading HIV, popular press feel obliged to associate HIV/AIDS and black down low men thus asserting that their lifestyle could possibly be why the disease started and is still growing. Therefore, this research paper is to spark whether "down low" black men contribute to the continuous spread of HIV/AIDS. Without understanding the background of the down low lifestyle, writers popularize negative associations with it. Furthermore, I plan to briefly identify and define what is the down low and what allegedly provokes men to engage in it. And because the public media and writers have continuously pointed fingers at black men who only participate in this lifestyle, I also plan to expand my research to reject that only black men are on the down low.
According to NATIONAL SURVEY OF TEENS AND YOUNG ADULTS ON HIV/AIDS, “There are more than 1.1 million people in the United States living with HIV today, more than at any time in the history of the epidemic. Young people account for two in five new infections in the U.S., and minorities and gay men have been disproportionately affected. To better understand the views of young people in the U.S. on HIV/AIDS at this critical juncture in the epidemic, the Kaiser Family Foundation contracted with the research firm GfK in the fall of 2012 to conduct a national survey of 1,437 teens and young adults ages 15 through 24.( Kaiser Family Foundation 2012)” Nowadays, the age of maturity starts at an early age. From that point, they enter a world full of sexual desires that is apart of being human. This is why it is important for the parent(s) to be