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The Steps Of Bradsford's IDEAL Model

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In the 20th century, educators have dedicated their attention to trying to define and teach problem solving skills. In the early 1900s, problem solving was viewed as a mechanical, systematic, and often abstract set of skills, such as those used to solve riddles or mathematical equations. The given problems often have correct answers that are based on logical solutions with a single correct answer. Under the guidance of cognitive learning theories, problem solving shifted to represent a complex mental activity consisting of a variety of cognitive skills and actions. Problem solving included higher order thinking skills such as “visualization, association, abstraction, comprehension, manipulation, reasoning, analysis, synthesis, generalization—each…show more content…
The following are the steps of Bransford's IDEAL model: (1) Identify the problem, (2) Define the problem through thinking about it and sorting out the relevant information, (3) Explore solutions through looking at alternatives, brainstorming, and checking out different points of view, (4) Act on the strategies, (5) Look back and evaluate the effects of your activity (Bradsford, 1984). Bradsford IDEAL model is similar to many of the general problem solving models that were common then and that are still used with many general problem solving courses found in academic and corporate training settings. These are stand-alone courses, which teach problem solving as a “content-free” thinking skill, not integrated with the rest of the curriculum or work…show more content…
Mayer suggested three characteristics of problem solving: (1) Problem solving is cognitive but is inferred from behavior, (2) Problem solving results in behavior that leads to a solution, (3) Problem solving is a process that involves manipulation of or operations on previous knowledge (Funkhouser and Dennis, 1992). Gick’s Problem Solving Model. One frequently-used model of the problem solving process is used by Gick (1986). This model identifies a basic sequence of three cognitive activities in problem solving: (1) Representing the problem includes calling up the appropriate context knowledge, and identifying the goal and the relevant starting conditions for the problem. (2) Solution search includes refining the goal and developing a plan of action to reach the Goal, and (3) Implementing the Solution includes executing the plan of action and evaluating the results. Krulick’s Steps of Problem Solving. Krulick and Rudnick (1996) suggested five stages of problem solving and these are (1) reading and thinking, (2) analyze and planning, (3) organizing strategy, (4) getting the answer, and (5) confirmation of the
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