The Stroop Effect Essay

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The Stroop effect is demonstrated by the reaction time to determine a color when the color is printed in a different color’s name. Participants respond slower or make more errors when the meaning of the word is incongruent with the color of the word. Despite knowing the meaning of the word, participants showed incapability of ignoring the stimulus attribute. This reflects a clear instance of semantic interference and an unfathomed failure of selective attention (Stroop, 1935).
In the study of the female chimpanzee Lana, the authors tested the Stroop-like effect with an animal to gather evidence from a nonverbal organism to provide additional information about the role of compatibility between response latency and performance accuracy.
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Consistent with "over selective" attention, psychopath offenders displayed reduced Stroop interference on the separated color-word Stroop and picture-word Stroop tasks relative to offenders who were not psychopaths. However, psychopath offenders displayed normal Stroop interference on the standard color-word Stroop. This information suggest a circumscribed attention deficit in psychopaths that hinders the use of unattended information that is (a) not integrated with deliberately attended information and (b) not compatible with current goal-directed behavior (Hiatt, Schmitt, & Newman, 2004).
In another study, five experiments were conducted to determine if coloring a single Stroop element reduced automaticity or slowed the processing of a color. The results demonstrated that indeed it slowed processing of congruent and neutral stimuli more than it slows processing of incongruent stimuli (Monahan, 2001).
In experiment 1, participants were instructed to press a key to determine if the stimulus was red, blue, yellow, or green. On the second half of the experiment, the stimulus appeared in grey with only one colored letter which was positioned randomly. Error rates for the experiment were below 2.5% for each condition, which is quite low. Experiment 2 was the same as experiment 1 except that there were 114 data collections instead of 288 and there were 36 practice trials instead of 72. According to experiment 1 and 2 it is suggested that the effect of

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