The copolymers were synthesized with the molar ratios of aniline and o-phenylenediamine of 5:1 and catalyzed by potassium dichromate in aqueous acidic HCl solution. The obtained results were characterized by measuring FT-IR spectra for PANI-o-PDA copolymer, and PANI-o-PDA / kaolinite composites. Also, the thermal gravimetric analyses of the formed copolymer in absence and in presence of kaolinite composite were carried out. Moreover, the conductivity and resistivity of the resulting copolymer with and without kaolinite composite were
so that the conductometric data were treated by Fuoss–Shedlovsky method  by using a computer program, to evaluate the ion-pair association constants of the studied salts and to re-evaluate the limiting molar conductance (Λ0), where they proposed the following equation:
As explained by IDTech Ex report that the flexible electronics market will reach over $76 billion by 2023,while the market for flexible, thin, stretchable and bendable batteries will grow to become about $471 million industry by 2026. Additionally, the product is considered the most promising energy storage device with low carbon dioxide emission. The energy density of the lithium ion battery range between 120-170 Wh Kg-1 and 250-380 Wh l-1 more higher than Ni-Cd and Lead-acid. LIB has three major electronically active components namely anode, electrolyte, and cathode. The anode is the negative electrode that releases electrons into an external circuit during a discharge process that involves the oxidation of chemical reactions. On the other hand, the cathode is the positive electrode that is reduced during a reaction. Notably, the lithium ions are stored within the cathode after a cell is discharged. Both cathode and anode stores energy while on charge, and releases it on discharge. Cathode materials have relatively high electrochemical potentials while anode materials have low potentials. This design approach helps maximize the battery’s output voltage. The final active component of the LIB is the electrolyte. It is a mixture of a set of organic solvents containing disassociated lithium salts that enables Li+ transportation between the anode and the cathode. Besides, other complementary components, such as current collectors attached to the
As found in the group lab, polar covalent substances are soluble in water due to the dipole-dipole attraction between water and the molecule. They are also soluble in ethyl alcohol for this same reason. Also, they are not conductors in H2O because there are no charged particles floating freely, they are elements, not ions. Lastly, they have a melting point between 1000C and 5000C due to the dipole-dipole forces within the molecule. In the independent lab, it was found that the substance in container 4 met most of the requirements for it to be classified as a polar substance. It was soluble in water and ethyl alcohol, it did not conduct electricity in H2O and had a melting point between 1000C and 5000C. Although, the chemical within this container was not soluble in ethyl alcohol and soluble in hexane. This could have been due to the ratio of the substance and volume of
Wang, Y., Chen, K.S., Mishler, J., Cho, S.C., and Adroher, X.C. (2011)A Review of Polymer ElectrolyteMembrane Fuel Cells: Technology, Applications, and Needs on Fundamental Research, Applied Energy, 88, (4), pp. 981-1007.
When ionic compounds (compounds consisting of a positive cation and a negative anion stuck together by the attraction of the other’s charge) are dissolved in water, electrolytes are created. An electrolyte is a substance that conducts electricity when dissolved in water, while a non-electrolyte is one that cannot.3 In general, those compounds whose ions dissociate in greater amount and are in greater concentration are more conductive, or have more ability to transmit heat and electricity. We can demonstrate this dissociation of sodium chloride dissolved in water with the following chemical
In our study, a nanocrystalline PEDOT: PSS polymeric counter electrode was used instead of the Pt counter electrode to reduce the cost of the DSSC. We present a detailed study of the photovoltaic response as current-voltage (I-V) and C-V characterization of the DSSC based on PEDOT: PSS. The conduction mechanism and the negative capacitance of the studied cell are analyzed in
Polymers have been changing the way we live for over 100 years. Their availability and diverse qualities ensure that they are always in high demand, and new polymers are always being discovered. Where does this leave the now commonplace polymers which once were ubiquitous in commerce? Polymers such as polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride (Bakelite) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were first synthesised in 1907 and 1938 respectively, making them old by polymer standards. Although the original polymer applications are now redundant, they have found uses in new areas of society. This dynamic aspect of polymers is due to their unique structure. Polymers are created from many small molecules (or monomers) reacting with each other, and arranging
PPV, otherwise known as polyphenylene vinylene are electric conductors that processed into tiny films which emit a bright fluorescent yellow light which could potentially be a replacement for LEDS in electronics. PPV is prepared from p-xylene-bis and the addition of acetonitrile-tetrabutylammonium tetrafluoroborate and from there, the product is treated with heat to eliminate diethyl sulfide, HCL, and ethyl sulfide to form the final product, PPV. Similarly, another method, called direct chemical polymerization, formed PPV but it was only in the form of powder which could not be turned into tiny films for commercial use. In lab, we learned that PPV precursor can be synthesized in a one step reaction from p-xylene using NBs. In the reaction with
Two famous methodologies, the chemical or electrochemical oxidation of phenylenediamines yields the analogous poly(phenylenediamines) and their potential application for the removal of lead ions from water [1, 3, 11].
The major differences of these two chemical bonds are shown obviously in the lab. Metals has larger density values, higher hardness than polymers and able to conduct electricity while polymers is not able to. To understand the distinction in atomic bonding, one can utilize the knowledge in his
However, their molar refractivity has to be maximized simultaneously in order to obtain a viable HRI material. The molar refractivity depends on the polarizability of the elements and moieties comprising the compound of interest (see Table 1).23–26 The fact that carbon has only a modest atomic polarizability results in the low RI values of typical carbon-based polymers. Highly polarizable heteroatoms and substituents (e.g., sulfur, phosphorus, bromine, iodine) can significantly improve the RI of the corresponding polymers. Hydrogen and strongly electronegative elements (such as oxygen and fluorine) have a low polarizability and consequently exhibit the inverse effect. A number of HRI polymers containing high mass fractions of RI-promoting elements
A polymer is a long chain of molecules made up of many repeating identical units called monomers. A polymer made from two or more repeating units of monomers are called copolymers (Smith et al., 2006). Monomers are often made up of Hydrogen and Carbon with extra elements such as Oxygen, Nitrogen and Chlorine, creating the backbone of the polymer. These can be made synthetically, such as polyethylene or occur naturally like cellulose, as are the polymers being investigated are. Polylactic acid is made naturally and Polypropylene is made synthetically. Polymers can be three dimensional networks which don’t melt such as epoxy resin, and are called thermoset polymers, two dimensional or one dimensional networks or chains which can be melted such as polypropylene called thermoplastic polymers
* Co-polymers with randomly distributed side groups are versatile and therefore help give the desired physical and chemical properties. Properties Of The Primer Layer Amine groups in chains mean that ionic groups are produced when in contact with acid.