The Success Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

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1.0 Introduction
The success of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) lies in its ability to persist within humans for longer periods without causing any disease symptoms known as latent infection (LTBI). About 2 billion people are estimated to be latently infected and might reactivate into active TB disease (Kasprowicz et al., 2011). Because of the huge reservoir of latently infected individuals, diagnosis and treatment of latent TB infection has obtained increasing importance as a public health measure to control TB. In depth knowledge about the biology of dormant M. tuberculosis is important to develop new therapeutic tools for latent TB (Barry et al., 2009). Several lines of evidence link latent tuberculosis and inhibition of M.
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tuberculosis (Fang et al., 2012; Rustad et al., 2009). The most frequently used experimental model for hypoxia-induced M. tuberculosis dormancy is the defined headspace model of non-replicating persistence (NRP) (Wayne and Hayes, 1996) and is adapted for the present study. Wayne and Hayes (1996) successfully established in vitro experimental model for hypoxia-induced M. tuberculosis dormancy by maintaining 0.5 head to space ratio (HSR) in their bacterial culture method. In vitro Wayne’s model is a widely used method and followed for the present study.
To date, many in vitro hypoxia experimental models used the common laboratory mycobacterial strains like H37Rv and Erdmann strain (Sherman et al., 2001; Voskuil et al., 2004). But, laboratory strains might not completely represent the virulence of naturally occurring clinical strains involved during disease outbreaks. Very few hypoxia reports (Boon et al., 2001; Starck et al., 2004) used the prevalent clinical strains but these strains are not from TB endemic areas. The unique feature of the present report is, we have used 2 prevalent clinical strains (S7 and S10) from TB endemic region like India and evaluated their adaptation mechanism, in terms of protein expression, under in vitro hypoxia.
The strains S7 and S10 were first reported by Das et al., (1995) from a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) study
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