Urbanisation poses a threat to wildlife through habitat destruction and population fragmentation. As a consequence, urbanisation alters the distribution of species. Yet, urbanisation creates opportunities for some species to thrive and persist in the urban jungle. Many species have adapted to urban areas across the globe. However, not all animals living in urban areas adapt to urban life and instead might be confined to refugia that match the pre-existing adaptation to natural conditions. Therefore, studying the occurrence and persistence of wildlife in urban areas might provide an understanding how some species can survive urbanisation (Chace & Walsh 2006; Sih 2013; Sol et al. 2013; Fontúrbel & Tarifa 2013).
Wildlife can become pests in urban areas. For invasive species, these conflicts arise because they exploit newly available niches. For example, cane toads, Bufo marinus, in Australia, red foxes, Vulpes vulpes, across the globe, and grey squirrels, Sciurus carolinensis, in Britain (Barr et al. 2002; Saunders et al. 2010; Bateman & Fleming 2012). However, for indigenous species, these conflicts can arise through habituation to people which could lead to these species being viewed as pests due to their behaviours conflicting with human interests. For example, European badgers, Meles meles, in British residential properties during foraging and sett construction (Ward et al. 2008).
My study is concerned with establishing how species can survive in urban